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Amerika mutabwirwa: Ibintu biteye isoni biba aho benshi bita Paradizo

Yanditswe na Cyprien Niyomwungeri
Kuya 12 May 2022 saa 12:48
Yasuwe :

Hambere aha nakoze urugendo Kigali-Nyagatare, ku ntebe y’imodoka yadutwaye nari nicaranye n’umusore w’imyaka 19 warangije amashuri yisumbuye. Mu masaha abiri n’igice twagendanye, twaraganiriye biratinda ku buryo hari n’abaketse ko dusanzwe tuziranye, byahe byo kajya ko n’ubu duhuye byasaba ubushishozi ngo mwibuke.

Ntabwo ndi bugaruke ku bwiza bw’imirambi y’Iburasirazuba, amahumbezi y’Ikiyaga cya Muhazi, ibihingwa bitoshye n’ibindi byiza nagendaga nihera ijisho. Munyemerere nitse ku gace k’ikiganiro na wa musore. Ubwo twari tugitangira Akarere ka Rwamagana, yarabutswe umugabo wasunikaga ibitoki byinshi ku igare umubiri wose yatose numva arimyoje ati "Kuba muri Afurika ni ugupfa nabi".

N’amatsiko menshi namubajije impamvu y’iri jambo, numva ntaho ataniye n’ababona Afurika nk’umugabane w’indwara, ubukene, inzara, impfu nyinshi, ruswa, intambara mbese umugabane wavumwe utuwe na ba ntaho nikora batagira n’amazi meza yo kunywa. Wari umukoro ukomeye muri iki kiganiro kumvisha uyu mwana muto ibitandukanye n’ibyo yamize.

Namubajije aho yumva yaba atazuyaje ati "muri Amerika cyangwa i Burayi", ndakomeza nti ese mama wumva hameze hate? ati ’Ni paradizo’, hariya nta mukene uhaba, amafaranga aba yimena, urarwara ukavuzwa neza n’ikimenyimenyi abakomeye n’abaherwe muri Afurika ni ho bajya kwivuza, abize neza ni ho bavomye ubumenyi, mu kwanzura ati numva ’nta mukene ubayo’.

Kimwe n'ahandi, muri Amerika naho haba ba ntaho nikora ku buryo ubuzima ari ukubara ubukeye

Ikiganiro nagiranye n’uyu musore numvise ntaho atandukaniye n’abandi benshi. Muri iyi minsi uzasanga hari abarota kujya i Burayi na Amerika ku buryo bemera no kurongora/kurongorwa n’abasaza cyangwa abakecuru. Iyo muri iyi minsi uvuze ijambo ’umu-diaspora’, humvikana abasore bakamejeje mu nkundo n’abakobwa/abagore baba mu mahanga ngo bazabajyaneyo.

Nonese koko muri Amerika nta bakene babayo? ibintu byose ni paradizo? Wakwemera se ko habayo abashomeri cyangwa abakora akazi utatinyuka gukozaho imitwe y’intoki? Byakugora kwiyumvisha uburyo abantu bicwa nk’ibimonyo ijoro n’amanywa ndetse hari n’abarara ku muhanda.

Uko waburara ni nako n’umunyamerika yaburara, akarara mu kiraro cyangwa mu muhanda yabuze inzu, uko wabura mutuelle de santé ni ko nawe yabura amafaranga yo kujya kwa muganga ngo yikuze iryinyo cyangwa ubundi buvuzi bworoheje agategereza umugiraneza. Uko niko kuri.

Mu 2018, Perezida Donald Trump wayoboraga Leta zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, yavuze ko iki gihugu ari igihangange kandi kizakomeza kuba igihangange. Yahawe amashyi menshi n’abaturage be ariko hari abandi babona ko ibyo yavuze ari byabindi byo kwikirigita ugaseka.

Bashingira ku kuba mu ngingo nyinshi Amerika ikomeje guhanantuka, uhereye ku kiguzi cy’uburezi ukagera ku bushongore n’ubukaka bwa pasiporo yayo. Hari ibindi bihugu byinshi biri imbere yayo ku buryo uwavuga ko ’ari igihangange’ atakwemeranya n’ibyo imibare yerekana.

Amahema y'abatagira aho kuba agaragara mu mihanda itandukanye i Los Angeles

Baba ku muhanda

Biragoye gutekereza ko muri Amerika hari abantu batagira aho barambika umusaya bibera ku muhanda cyangwa mu modoka byabindi byitwa ’kugangika’. Niwumve imodoka ngo utangare kuko hakurya iyo si umutungo uhambaye.

Ikibazo cy’abantu batagira aho kuba ku Isi kirahangayikishije muri rusange ushobora kugisanga mu Bwongereza, u Bufaransa ariko byagera muri Leta zunze Ubumwe za Amerika bigahumira ku mirari. Mu 2018, nibura 0,17% by’Abanyamerika babaga ku muhanda. Ushobora gutekereza ko ari bake ariko aba bangana n’ibihumbi 553.

Ni ukuvuga abaturage baruta ab’Akarere ka Gasabo ari na ko kagira benshi mu Rwanda barenga ibihumbi 530. Leta zifite abaturage benshi batagira aho baba ni California, New York, Florida, Washington, Oregon na Texas. Izi leta zose zihuriye ku kuba zifite ubucucike bw’abantu benshi ariko zikanagira abakire benshi muri rusange.

Aha ni ho havukira ikibazo kivuga ngo ’niba Amerika ari igihugu gikize cyane ku Isi, kuki ari cyo gifite abaturage benshi batagira aho kuba?. Ibi biterwa ahanini no kuba abakize cyane bangana na 1% by’Abanyamerika bose, bihariye 40% by’ubukungu bw’igihugu cyose.

Mu 2020, Covid-19 yazamuye cyane igiciro cy’ubukode muri Amerika n’ubushomeri bituma abagera ku bihumbi 600 by’abanyamerika basigara iheruheru ntaho kuba bafite.

Nko mu 2019, Umujyi wa New York washoye miliyari 3$, yo gufasha abatagira aho baba. California yagombaga gushora miliyari 4,8$ mu myaka ibiri yo gukemura iki kibazo. Gusa nubwo ingengo y’imari izamuka mu gukemura ikibazo cy’abatagira aho kuba, kuva mu 2007 cyiyongereyeho 10%.

Muri Los Angeles iyo uhageze uhasanga utuzu duto twa shitingi, hari abandi bantu baryamye hanze kuko ntaho kuba bafite. Mu 2019 bari 59 000 batagira aho kuba.

Abenshi ntabwo baba banemerewe gusaba kuko ari icyaha muri leta nyinshi kandi bihanwa n’amategeko. Gusa hari abahitamo kwica amategeko bagasabiriza cyane.

Ubukene bukabije

Kuvuga ko muri Amerika hari ubukene, nta gitangaje ko byafatwa nk’igitutsi mu matwi ya benshi. Icyo kumenya ni uko uburyo waburara uri muri Somalia ni nako n’umunyamerika yaburara, akabura mutuelle de santé, kujya kwa muganga bikamubera ihurizo kugeza ubwo ategereza ko hari umugiraneza wamugoboka.

Muri Amerika hari abantu benshi batunzwe na pizza z’ubuntu ziba zasigaye, ibyo inaha twita ’imisigi’. Izi pizza usanga baba barazemerewe n’imwe muri restaurant.

Hari umugabo witwa Eric w’imyaka 51 waganiriye na DW, avuga ko "Hari imigati iba imaze igihe bakayifata bakashyira muri frigo bakayimbikira nkaza kuyifata." Ibi abikora buri mugoroba agasubira muri ya parikingi y’ubuntu ahari imodoka agangikamo agasangira n’abandi babayeho gutyo.

Mu Burasirazuba bwa Amerika, hari agace karimo inzara nyinshi ku rwego rw’aho hari abagiraneza birirwa bazenguruka batanga ibiribwa cyane cyane ku bababaye nk’abana. Ku munsi nibura batanga amafunguro ahiye ku bantu 200.

Reka tujye mu mibare, Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zifite abantu miliyoni 42.5 bari munsi y’umurongo w’ubukene. Ni ukuvuga ngo ni nk’abantu batuye u Rwanda inshuro eshatu gusa ariko ku rundi ruhande, ituwe na miliyoni zirenga 329.5.

Imibare y’Ikigo cya Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika cy’Ibarurishamibare, United States Census Bureau, igaragaza ko muri iki gihugu ikigero cy’ubukene kiri kuri 13.4% . Leta ya Mississippi ni yo ifite abakene benshi bangana na 20.3%. Ikurikirwa na Louisiana ifite 19.2%, New Mexico ni 19.1% West Virginia, Kentucky, Arkansas, Alabama, Oklahoma, Tennessee na South Carolina.

Izi leta zose nta zifite abaturage bari munsi y’umurongo nibura 15%. Kimwe n’ibindi bihugu byinshi bikennye, imibare yo mu 2018 yerekana ko Abanyamerika bagera kuri miliyoni 14.3 (11.1%) bafite ikibazo cyo kutabona ibyo kurya bihagije.

Ubukene ni ikibazo gisangiwe n’ubwoko bwose butuye muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, gusa abakene benshi ni Abanyamerika kavukire bangana na 25.4%, mu gihe abirabura bakennye bo ari 20.8%, naho 10.1% ni Abanya-Aziya.

Ikindi imibare y’iki kigo igaragaza ni uko ubukene bwiganje mu bakuze aho 12.8 % by’abanyamerika bafite imyaka 65 gusubiza hejuru kubera ko bagera mu myaka y’izabukuru batariteganyirije cyangwa se ngo babe barateganyirijwe n’abakoresha babo amafaranga y’izabukuru.

Abagabo miliyoni 158.7 nibo baba muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, muri bo abagera kuri miliyoni 16.8 bari munsi y’umurongo w’ubukene, mu gihe mu bagore miliyoni 165.1 baba muri iki gihugu, abagera kuri miliyoni 21.4 nabo bari munsi y’umurongo w’ubukene.

Aba bose muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika babarwa nk’abakene kuko nibura buri umwe yinjiza amadorali ari hasi y’ibihumbi 12760 ku mwaka.

N’ubwo aya mafaranga ashobora kumvikana nk’aho ari menshi ku baturage b’ibihugu bikoresha amafaranga afite agaciro kari munsi y’idorali, muri iki gihugu ni nk’aho ntacyo amaze kuko atagukodeshereza inzu cyangwa ngo uyahahishe mu gihe cy’umwaka.

Imibare yerekana ko nibura abanyamerika miliyoni 41 iyo bariye uyu munsi ntibaba bazi ko ejo bazabibona, muri make baricira isazi mu maso. Bivuze ko indwara zituruka ku mirire mibi ari nyinshi, abana ntibiga kuko utakwiga ushonje n’iyo bagiyeyo ntibatsinda.

Nibura umuryango umwe mu munani muri Amerika urashonje. Aba bangana na 12.3% by’ingo zose zo muri iki gihugu ubariyemo n’abitwa ’abakene bakora’, ni ukuvuga umuryango w’abantu bane winjiza 25 000$ ku mwaka. Bivuze ngo ku kwezi ni 2,017$ asaga gato miliyoni ebyiri z’amafaranga y’u Rwanda ziba zigomba kwishyurwamo icumbi, kwivuza, imodoka, kwigisha abana, amafunguro n’ibindi.

Nibura abanyeshuri bo muri za Kaminuza 48% muri Amerika baba bafite ikibazo cy’inzara.

Ikigero cy’ubushomeri muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika cyari 3,8 ku ijana muri Gashyantare 2022 kivuye kuri 4 ku ijana mu kwezi kwa mbere. Umubare w’abashomeri wari miliyoni 6.270.000.

Ubwicanyi, kubahiriza amategeko n’itangazamakuru

Ntabwo ushobora kuvuga ubwicanyi muri Amerika ngo wirengagize ubukorwa na polisi. Intwaro ni ikibazo gikomeye cyane muri Amerika ndetse nta munsi w’ubusa hataganirwa ku byiza n’ibibi byo kwemerera abaturage gutunga imbunda. Imwe mu mpamvu iza imbere n’umubare w’abana bapfa bishwe n’imbunda muri iki gihugu kurenza ahandi ku Isi.

Imibare yerekana ko muri Amerika imbunda zica abana benshi ku mwanya wa kabiri nyuma y’impanuka z’imodoka. Muri make abana bicwa n’imbunda baruta abicwa na kanseri.

Mu 2016, abana 3143 bazize impfu zifitanye isano n’imbunda, abenshi bakaba bararasiwe ku mashuri. Muri rusange abantu bapfa barashwe muri Amerika baruta abo muri Iraq, Afghanistan, Thailand, Kenya n’ahandi.

The Lancet iheruka gutangaza ko mu 2020 gusa abantu 1021 bishwe na polisi naho mu 2021 bari 1,054. Kuva mu 1980 kugeza mu 2018, abarenga 30 000 barapfuye biturutse ku bikorwa by’ihohoterwa bakorewe na polisi. Abanyamerika b’abirabura bishwe na polisi bakubye 3.5 abazungu.

Gusa ariko 60% by’izi mpfu ntabwo zigeze zitangazwa. Abantu baraswa na polisi bagapfa biganjemo abagabo ku kigero cya 95%, aho abarenga kimwe cya kabiri ari abagabo bari hagati y’imyaka 20 na 40. Leta ziganjemo ubu bwicanyi ni New Mexico, Alaska na Oklahoma.

Hagati ya 2015 na 2019, Polisi ya Amerika nibura ku mwaka yishe abantu 1000. Abanyafurika b’abanyamerika bihariye 13% by’abaturage ba Amerika ariko nibo bihariye 24% by’abicwa na polisi. Abazungu bihariye 60% by’abatuye Amerika ariko bagize 46% by’abaraswa na polisi.

Nibura abagera ku 14,400 biyahuye bakoresheje kwirasa. Bitatu bya kane by’abiyahura bose ku mwaka muri Amerika bakoresha imbunda. Impfu zirenga 38,600 z’abishwa n’imbunda mu 2019 harimo 23,900 birashe.

Iyo bigeze ku bijyanye n’ihohoterwa rikoresheje imbunda Amerika usanga ntaho itaniye n’ibihugu byo muri Amerika y’Amajyepfo. Iki gihugu cyareruye gitangaza ko ibyaha bikoreshejwe imbunda ari ikibazo ku burenganzira bwa muntu. Buri mwaka nibura abagera ku bihumbi 39 bicwa barashwe muri Amerika.

Impuzandengo yerekana ko abarenga 360 baraswa buri munsi muri Amerika bakarokoka cyangwa bakajya mu bitaro.

Umuryango wita ku butabera World Justice Project washyize Amerika ku mwanya wa 18 ku Isi mu kubahiriza amategeko, aho wasanze hari ibidakorwa mu kurwanya ruswa, kubaha uburenganzira shingiro bwa muntu, kugera ku butabera ndetse no kubazwa inshingano.

Ibi biyishyira inyuma y’ibihugu nka Denmark, Norvege, Finland, Suede, u Buholandi, u Budage, Austria, New Zealand, Singapore n’u Bwongereza.

Buri mwaka umuryango Reporters Without Borders ugaragaza uko ibihugu bihagaze mu bijyanye n’ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru. Leta zunze Ubumwe za Amerika ziri ku mwanya wa 44 mu bihugu 180. Bimwe mu bituma Amerika izi inyuma gutya ni uko nta tegeko ifite riha uburenganzira abanyamakuru bwo kurinda aho bakuye amakuru, itabwa muri yombi ry’abanyamakuru bataraga inkuru ku myigaragambyo hirya no hino mu gihugu ndetse no kwibasira itangazamakuru kwakozwe bikomeye na Donald Trump.

Imyigaragambyo y'abamagana urugomo ruterwa n'imbunda ntisiba mu bice bitandukanye bya Amerika

Kwivuza si ibya bose

Muri Amerika ni hamwe mu hari ubuvuzi buhenze ku Isi. Abaturage bakennye iyo barwaye bategereza ubufasha bw’imiryango yigenga ngo ibavure. Usanga kuri iyi miryango hari abantu uruvunganzoka kandi bikorwa rimwe mu cyumweru. Benshi bitwikira ijoro ngo barebe ko baza kugerwaho bakavurwa.

Mu gihe buri gihugu giharanira ko serivisi z’ubuvuzi ziba ntamakemwa kandi zikagera kuri bose, Amerika nicyo gihugu rukumbi gikize ku Isi kitagira uburyo bwo kwivuza kuri bose kandi buhendutse.

Ikinyamakuru Los Angeles Times kivuga ko Amerika isohora inshuro zikubye gatatu ayo ibindi bihugu bikize bisohora ku buvuzi ariko abaturage bayo bafite icyizere cyo kuramba gito ugereranyije n’ibyo bihugu. Amerika iyoboye ibihugu bikize mu kugira impfu nyinshi zishobora kwirindwa.

Urugero mu 2013 abanyamerika 112 mu 100 000 bari munsi y’imyaka 75 barapfaga mu buryo bwashoboraga kwirindwa iyo babona ubuvuzi bukwiye.

Imibare igaragaza ko mu 2019 abantu bapfa muri Amerika bari ku kigero cya 8.7 ku bantu 1000, ni mu gihe mu 2009 bari 7.9%. Abana bapfa ni 5.6 ku bana 1000.

OMS igaragaza ko Amerika ari igihugu cya gatatu ku Isi mu kugira abaturage benshi bafite indwara y’agahinda gakabije ’depression’, nyuma y’u Bushinwa n’u Buhinde.

Nibura buri munyamerika yishyura 11,072$ ku mwaka mu buvuzi, Ubusuwisi 7,732$, u Budage 6,646$, Suede 5,782, u Buholandi 5,496$.

Mu 2017 Amerika yashyizwe ku mwanya wa 18 mu bihugu 128 hagendewe ku buryo abaturage bayo babona ibintu nkenerwa by’ibanze nk’ibiribwa, amazi, icumbi, uburenganzira ku kwiga n’ibindi. Ibihugu biri imbere ni Denmark, Finland, Norvege, Iceland n’u Busuwisi.

Ibiyobyabwenge (Drugs). Amerika yihariye hejuru ya 5% y’ibiyobyabwenge ku Isi yose. Abicwa n’inzoga, ibiyobyabwenge n’abiyahura muri Amerika hagati ya 1999-2017 bari 64,591 muri 1999, bagera ku 151,845 mu 2017. Ibiyobyabwenge byonyine byishe 73,990.

Ibi kandi bigendana no gufunga abantu cyane kuko Raporo ya World Prison Brief yerekana ko Amerika ari cyo gihugu gifite abantu benshi bafunze aho bangana na 2 068 800. Ni ukuvuga ko abafunzwe bangana n’abaturage ba Leta ya New Mexico bose.

Gatanya ziri kuri 46% muri Amerika. Nibura umwana umwe muri bane muri Amerika abana n’umubyeyi umwe kubera gatanya, akaba ari imibare myinshi ugereranyije n’ibindi bihugu.

Serivisi z’ubuzima ntizigerwaho n’abantu uko babyifuza

Internet inyaruka ntibarizwa muri Amerika

Amerika yavumbuye internet ariko yasigaye inyuma y’ibihugu byinshi mu bijyanye no kugira internet yihuta. Ni iya 15 ku Isi mu kugira internet ikoreshwa muri telefoni yihuta, ikaba iya 13 mu kugira internet yihuta yo ku muyoboro mugari (Broadband).

Internet yihuta ntabwo wayisanga muri Amerika nk’uko bamwe babitekereza. Ibarizwa muri Aziya no mu Burayi bw’u Burengerazuba mu bihugu nka Singapore, Hong Kong, Romania, u Busuwisi, Denmark, Thailand n’ibindi.

Ubusumbane mu kubona serivisi z’ubuvuzi muri Amerika bwagaragajwe cyane n’icyorezo cya Covid-19. Muri Werurwe 2021 abirabura b’abanyamerika bapfaga bwikube 1.4 ugereranyije n’abazungu,

Nubwo Leta zimwe na zimwe zashyizeho umushahara fatizo urenze uw’igihugu cyagennye ungana n’amadolari 7.25$ ku isaha, ni ukuvuga ko nyuma y’umusoro umukozi acyura 6$.

Hari ibihugu bitandatu aho abakozi bacyura arenga 8$ ku isaha. Muri Australia bacyura $9.54 ku isaha, ikurikirwa na Luxembourg, u Bubiligi, Ireland, u Bufaransa n’u Buholandi.

Covid-19 yerekanye ko Amerika ari igihugu gishobora kuzutaguzwa n'ibyorezo
Nta leta n'imwe yo muri Amerika bujya bucya nta mwana w'umukobwa udafashwe ku ngufu
Polisi n'abaturage bahora bashyamiranye umunsi ku wundi
Amerika iri mu bihugu bigoye kubona icumbi rihendutse
Ubushakashatsi buherutse kugaragaza ko icyizere cy’ejo hazaza muri Amerika, kiboneka mu birabura gusa naho abandi bari mu miborogo

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