Isura y’ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro bwitezweho gukuba kane inyungu mu myaka irindwi

Yanditswe na Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi
Kuya 7 Gicurasi 2019 saa 09:37
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Uko iterambere ry’Isi ryihuta ni nako hakenerwa ibikoresho byifashishwa mu nzego zinyuranye, aho hose icy’ingenzi ni amabuye y’agaciro avamo bya bikoresho bigezweho mu ikoranabuhanga ndetse n’ibyuma.

Imibare iheruka yerekana ko inyungu iva mu bucukuzi yavuye kuri miliyoni 149.1$ mu 2015 ikagera kuri miliyoni 166$ mu 2016/2017 na miliyoni 373$ mu 2017/2018, bituma uru rwego ruba urwa kabiri mu kwinjiriza u Rwanda amadevize menshi, inyuma y’ubukerarugendo.

Kubera amahirwe agaragara munsi y’ubutaka bw’u Rwanda n’ishoramari rikomeje kongerwamo, ubu intego yarahanitswe kuko hitezwe miliyoni 800$ mu 2020 ndetse mu 2024 ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro bukazaba bugeze kuri miliyari 1.5$.

Ubucukuzi mu Rwanda si ubwa vuba kuko amateka agaragaza ko bwatangiye hagati ya 1930 -1931 ubwo gasegereti yavumburwaga mu birombe bya Rwinkwavu na Rutongo.

Inyungu y'amabuye y'agaciro ikomeje kwiyongera

Ishoramari mu bucukuzi rikomeje kwiyongera

Ubu ishoramari rijya muri uru rwego rikomeje kwiyongera kuko Ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’Iterambere giheruka gutangaza ko mu mwaka wa 2017 ishoramari rishya ryanditswe mu bucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro ryari $267,344,495.

Hashyizwe imbaraga mu kongerera agaciro amabuye yoherezwa hanze avuye mu Rwanda binyuze mu ishoramari nk’irya Luna Smelter yatangiye gukora ndetse iherutse gushyira hanze umushongi wa gasegereti. Ubusanzwe koruta yoherezwaga hanze idatunganije bigatuma igiciro cyayo kigabanuka bigahombya igihugu.

Hateganywa kandi gufungurwa uruganda nk’uru mu Bugesera ruzwi nka PRG Plc ruzashora miliyoni 12$ mu cyiciro cya mbere. U Rwanda kandi rwakiriwe mu muryango w’ibihugu bicukura koruta ku Isi (TIC) mu nama iheruka kubera i Kigali.

Amabuye y’agaciro ari hose mu gihugu

Amabuye menshi u Rwanda rutunganya ni Gasegereti, Koruta na Wolfram ndetse hari ibice bitandukanye bicukurwamo zahabu nko muri Miyove na Kinyami mu Karere ka Gicumbi, hakaba amabengeza n’andi mabuye nayo akeneye ishoramari.

Umuyobozi w’ikigo New Bugarama Mining gicukura Wolfram mu karere ka Burera, Ndabananiye Janvier, avuga ko aho bakorera ubucukuzi hatangiye mu 1957. Iki kigo kimaze kwimakaza ikoranabuhanga mu kuyungurura amabuye y’agaciro hifashishijwe imashini.

Mu gihe kera abacukuzi wasangaga bagendera mu myobo imanuka, ubu hari uburyo bushya bwo gutunganya indani banyuramo bacukura.

Yagize ati “Ni ukuvuga ko dushaka gucamo hasi kuko iyo amafiro agaragara hejuru no hasi aba ahari, turashaka guca hasi ngo tuyafate kuko ni nabyo bitanga umutekano w’abacukuzi.”

Ndabananiye avuga ko nibura mu myaka itanu iri imbere toni 1114 zakagombye kuba zizacukurwa aho bakorera, ariko inyigo ishobora kugaragaza ko zirenga cyane.

Akarere ka Rutsiro ni ko karere usanga kabonekamo amabuye y’agaciro ku bwinshi. Nibura buri kwezi kabona umusaruro w’amabuye y’agaciro ari hagati ya toni 80-90 zirimo wolfram ingana na 25 ku ijana na gasegereti na Koruta bisaga 60%.

Umuyobozi Ushinzwe ibikorwa mu kigo Rubavu Exploitation and Trading Company, RETC, gifite imirimo y’ubucukuzi bw’amabuye, Gaspard Nzabanyurahe, avuga ko bakomeje gukoresha imbaraga mu kunoza umurimo w’ubucukuzi ari nako barushaho guteza imbere imibereho y’abakozi babo.

Ni ikirombe nacyo cyo hambere kuko hatangiye gucukurwa n’abakoloni mu 1940, ku buryo mu mwaka ushize wa 2018 hacukuwe toni zisaga 120 za Wolfram.

Ati “Ubu imirimo ihagaze neza gusa ikitarashoboka ni ukugerwaho n’amashanyarazi ahagije ku buryo twatangira kwifashisha imashini, hari aho tugikoresha intoki kandi imashini zafasha mu kongera umusaruro.”

Umusaruro ugomba kugendana n’imibereho y’abacukuzi

Umuyobozi w’Ikigo Gishinzwe Mine, Peteroli na Gaz, Francis Gatare, avuga ko uko ibigo byongera ishoramari mu bucukuzi, rigomba kujyana n’ubushakashatsi ku buryo uko bongera amafaranga bashora baba banafite icyizere ko harimo toni runaka z’amabuye y’agaciro bakamenya n’agaciro kazo.

Mu gushyira imbaraga mu bushakashatsi no kuzamura umusaruro, muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda hashyizweho ishami ryigisha ubucukuzi n’ubumenyi bw’ibigize Isi (geology). Ni kimwe no muri IPRC, ndetse abanyarwanda bakomeje gufashwa kujya kubyiga mu mahanga.

Gusa umuyobozi w’Akarere ka Rutsiro nka kamwe mu dukungahaye ku birombe, Ayinkamiye Emérance, yabwiye IGIHE ko uretse kuba Akarere kungukira ku musaruro w’amabuye, hanakenewe imbaraga ngo inyungu ivamo irusheho no kugirira akamaro abaturage.

Ati “Ubu icyo turimo gukora ni ukugira ngo abaturage babashe kungukira muri bwa bucukuzi bakora, kuko hano usanga nubwo abaturage bakora cyane, wa mushoramari ni we wunguka ugasanga abaturage bo baracyari mu bukene, amafaranga babonye bahita bayanywera.”

“Ubu turimo guteganya gukora ubukangurambaga ku bufatanye n’inzego zose, kugira ngo aba bakozi babashe kugira amasezerano ndetse bahemberwe kuri konti, kugira ngo ya mafaranga babona abashe kugira icyo abamarira.”

Umutekano w’abacukuzi warahagurukiwe

Muri Kanama 2018 nibwo hasohotse Itegeko rishya rigenga ubucukuzi, rigena ko umuntu wese ukora amakosa arimo kudaha abakozi ubwishingizi, ahanishwa guhagarikirwa uruhushya by’agateganyo.

Nyuma y’itangazwa ryaryo, Gatare yabwiye IGIHE ko impanuka nta cyazibuza, ariko igihe urukiko rugaragaje ko habayeho uruhare mu gutuma zibaho, hagomba kugira ubiryozwa.

Riteganya ko umuntu udakurikiza ibipimo ngenderwaho mu gushakashaka, mu gucukura, mu gutunganya cyangwa mu gucuruza amabuye y’agaciro cyangwa kariyeri, iyo byateje ibikomere n’uburwayi cyangwa byangije ibidukikije, ahanishwa igifungo kitari munsi y’amezi atandatu ariko kitarenze umwaka umwe n’ihazabu ya miliyoni imwe ariko itarenze miliyoni eshatu.

Iyo byateje ubumuga cyangwa indwara idakira ku muntu, ahanishwa igifungo kitari munsi y’umwaka umwe ariko kitarenze imyaka itatu n’ihazabu itari munsi ya miliyoni 3 Frw ariko itarenze miliyoni 5 Frw.

Iyo byateje urupfu ku muntu, iyo abihamijwe n’urukiko, ahanishwa igifungo kitari munsi y’imyaka irindwi ariko kitarenze imyaka icumi n’ihazabu y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda atari munsi ya miliyoni eshanu ariko atarenze miliyoni 10 Frw.

Impanuka ziba mu bucukuzi bisigaye byoroshye kumenyekana nyuma yaho RMB ishyize abakozi bayo muri buri karere ngo bakurikiane ibikorwa by’ubucukuzi. Mbere byari bigoranye kumenya impanuka kuko hari ubwo zabaga bikarangira bitamenyekanye.

Abanyeshuri bari kurangiza mu mashami y’ubumenyi bw’ibigize Isi haba muri IPRC, Kaminuza y’u Rwanda no muri kaminuza zo hanze, ni bamwe bari kwifashishwa mu kugabanya izi mpanuka bifashishije ubumenyi bakura mu mashuri.

Ubucukuzi bw’ibumba nabwo bwatekerejweho

U Rwanda rwatangiye ubushakashatsi bwo kureba uburyo amasosiyete abishoboye yahabwa ibyangombwa byo kubyaza umusaruro ibumba mu Rwanda.

Ubusanzwe ibumba iyo ritunganijwe neza niryo rikorwamo ibikoresho by’amadongo nk’ibikombe, amasahani, imitako n’ibindi. Ibi uretse kwinjiriza igihugu amafaranga bizanatanga akazi ku baturage bari basanzwe baturiye ibice bibonekamo ibumba nk’akarere ka Muhanga n’ahandi.

Hakomeje gukorwa byinshi birimo guhuriza hamwe impuguke mu mu by’ubumenyi bw’Isi, abakoze ubucukuzi kuva mu myaka ya 1970 kugera ku bakiri bato barangije mu myaka ya vuba, abayoboye inzego z’ubucukuzi n’abandi, hagamijwe guteza imbere urwego rw’ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro mu Rwanda.

Inyungu iva mu bucukuzi igiye gutangira gusaranganywa

Muri Nzeri 2015 nibwo Perezida Paul Kagame yijeje abaturage ko guverinoma ifite gahunda yo kugenera igice cy’amafaranga ava mu mutungo kamere w’igihugu nk’ibirombe, kigahabwa ababituriye nk’uko bigenda ku baturiye za pariki.

Byaje gutangazwa ko bazajya bahabwa inyungu ya 10 % by’umusaruro uva mu bucukuzi agashyirwa mu kubaka imihanda, amashanyarazi, amazi, ikoranabuhanga n’indi mishinga y’imibereho myiza nk’uburezi, ubuvuzi, ubuhinzi n’ibindi.

Minisitiri w’Imari n’Igenamigambi, Dr Ndagijimana Uzziel, aheruka kubwira IGIHE ko muri uyu mwaka w’ingengo y’imari wa 2019/2020, Guverinoma iteganya gutangira guha abaturage ku nyungu ikomoka ku bucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro.

Yagize ati “Bitandukanye n’ibyo mu bukerarugendo kubera ko ho ni bakeya. Abaturiye Pariki aba ari Nyungwe cyangwa Akagera ariko ahacukurwa amabuye ni ahantu henshi mu gihugu, icyarimwe ntibyakunda. Tuzajya dukora umushinga hamwe dukore ahandi gutyo.”

Minisitiri Ndagijimana yavuze ko uburyo iyi nyungu izatangwamo bukirimo kunozwa n’inzego bireba, yizeza ko umwaka w’ingengo y’imari uzatangira muri Nyakanga byakemutse.

Ibigo bimwe bigeze ku rwego rwo kwifashisha imashini mu gucukura wolfram usanga iba iri mu rutare hagati
Indani zimwe zimaze kuba ndende cyane mu kuzimu kubera imyaka zimaze zicukurwamo amabuye y'agaciro
Uburyo abacukuzi binjira mu nda y'Isi bwaravugururwe, hakoreshwa ubutanga umutekano w'abacukuzi
Francis Gatare amaze iminsi akurikirana imikorere y'ibigo bicukura amabuye y'agaciro
Itegeko rishya rihana abakora ubucukuzi bwangiza ibidukikije
Uyu murimo uba ukeneye ibyangombwa by'umutekano kubera aho ukorerwa
Imashini zisigaye zifashishwa mu kuyungurura amabuye y'agaciro bigatuma atakara aba make
Hari abakiyungurura amabuye y'agaciro bakoresheje uburyo gakondo, bigatuma amwe abacika

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