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Mbere y’uko u Rwanda rubaho, hari iki? (Igice cya mbere)

Yanditswe na Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu
Kuya 15 Ugushyingo 2022 saa 06:46
Yasuwe :

Benshi mu Banyarwanda, bakunze gucyocyoranira ku mateka y’u Rwanda, aho benshi bibaza uko hari hameze mbere y’uko hitwa igihugu cy’u Rwanda, abandi bakaba bazi ko cyari igihugu kimwe cyahanzwe na Gihanga, abandi bakamwemeza nk’umwami w’abami wagengaga ibihugu bitandukanye byari kuri ubu butaka, nyamara igihugu yahanze ari cyo cya Gasabo cyabaye inkomoko y’u Rwanda, kiri mu byahanzwe nyuma y’indi byose.

Ni yo mpamvu, IGIHE yafashe umwanya wo kubataturira amateka y’amashirakinyoma y’icyari kuri ubu butaka mbere y’uko u Rwanda rubaho, n’inzira zanyuzwemo kugira ngo kibe igihugu cyitwa u Rwanda dufite ubu.

Nk’uko tubikesha igitabo: “Imizizi y’u Rwanda, Umutumba wa mbere”, dukesha Umusizi Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu, inzobere mu Muco, amateka n’Ubuvanganzo, tugiye kubataturira byinshi ku mateka ya mbere y’uko u Rwanda rubaho.

Mbere y’uko iki gihugu gitangira guturwa, cyari kigizwe n’amashyamba cyimeza, inzuzi n’ibyogogo bitagira ingano. Abaturage baturutse imihanda yose, mu iyimukayimuka ryo gushaka ubwinyagamburiro bw’amatungo yabo n’imiryango yabo, ni bwo basesekaye muri aka karere. Nuko batangira gututira amashyamba cyimeza bahasanze, barayatsura, bayaremamo gakondo y’ubutaka butuwe.

Abo bimukira bari bavuye mu Majyaruguru y’Iburasirazuba bwa Afurika, babanje gutura mu miryango yabo, ari nako batwarwa n’abatware b’imiryango. Nyuma y’aho batangiye kugwira, barema ibihugu bigengwa n’umwami. Ari nayo mpamvu mu mateka y’u Rwanda, uzasanga buri gihugu cyari gifite umuryango mwihariko wa cyo.

Muri iryo hanga ry’ibihugu, bisanze kuri ubu butaka bwitwa Rwanda kugeza ubu, buhundagajeho ibihugu 29, byagengwaga n’abami batorwagwa mu miryango migari babarizwamo. Aho ni ho dusanga: Ibihugu 16, byagengwaga n’Abasinga n’imiryango ibakomokaho, ibihugu 6 byagengwagwa n’Abazigaba n’imiryango ibakomokaho, Ibihugu 5 by’Abanyiginya n’imiryango ibakomokaho, ari na byo byahanzwe nyuma y’ibindi byose, hakiyongeraho ibihugu 2 by’Abashi n’Abahavu.

Nubwo ibyo bihugu byari uruhuri, ariko byose byagengwaga n’abami bakomoka mu mriyango imwe nk’uko twabitatuye haruguru. Ibi bihugu byose uko ari 29, byatwaye imyaka isaga 582, ngo bihuzwe bireme igihugu kimwe ari cyo Rwanda tugandagajemo twese, igikorwa cyakozwe n’ingoma y’i Gasabo yari imwe muri izo ngoma 29 zari zigandagaje kuri ubu butaka.

Dukurikije amacishirizo dukura mu mateka y’u Rwanda adutaturira ko igihugu cya mbere cyahanzwe ahasaga mu wa 300, mu bihe by’ikibariro cyacu, icya nyuma gihangwa ahasaga mu wa 1120. Gusa amateka ntadutaturira neza igihe abatuye kuri ubu butaka bamaze barimo kororoka mu miryango migari babumbiyemo, mbere y’uko bagwiza abaturage bahangirwaho igihugu.

Ibi bihugu uko ari 29 byagiye bihangwa n’abakurambere babaye umuzi w’iturwa ry’ubu butaka, ibindi bihangwa n’abana babo, haziraho n’ibyahanzwe n’abuzukuru ndetse n’ibyahanzwe n’Abuzukuruza.

Dukurikije amateka dukura muri icyo gitabo cy’Imizi y’u Rwanda cyanditswe na Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu, tugiye kuva imuzi tuzabagerere imuzingo uko ibyo bihugu byagiye bikurikirana mu guhangwa kuri ubu butaka.

Ingoma y’u Budaha n’u Bwishaza

Iteka ryose iyo bavuze ingoma mu mateka y’u Rwanda, humvikana ibintu bine ari byo: Ingoma bivuga igihugu kigenga, ingoma nk’umutegetsi, ingoma nk’ubutegetsi n’ingoma nk’ab’urungano. Amateka akaba yarakunze gukoresha imvugo y’ingoma nko kugaragaza igihugu cyigenga, gifite umugenga wacyo, kinafite abo mu nda y’ingoma biyemeje kukigwira no kukivira.

Igihugu cy’u Budaha n’u Bwishaza, ni kimwe mu bihugu byahanzwe ku ikubitiro ry’inkubiri y’ihangabihugu muri aka karere, aho cyahanzwe ahasaga muri 300. Niho hari gakondo nkuru y’Abasinga bororokeyemo kuva bagera mu by’ino, babona gusakara mu bindi bice by’igihugu ndetse no muri Afurika y’Amajyepfo bajya guhangayo ibindi bihugu.

Ikubitiro ry’ihangwa rya gakondo nkuru y’imiryango y’Abasinga, ni mu Mirenge ya Musasa, Mushonyi, Ruhango, Kigeyo na Boneza yo muri Rutsiro. Hakiyongeraho n’Umurenge wa Nyamyumba yo muri Rubavu.

Aho icyo gihugu cyari giherereye kuri ubu, ni mu Karere ka Karongi n’aka Rutsiro mu Ntara y’Iburenngerazuba. Umwami wa mbere uzwi mu mateka y’u Budaha n’u Bwishaza ni Rurenge, ari nawe wabaye ibimburiro by’amateka y’Abasinga mu Rwamda, ari nawe wafatiweho amateka y’ikibariro cy’igicumbi cy’imiryango y’Abasinga n’imiryango migari ibakomokaho. Ingoma Ngabe yabo, ari nayo yafatwaga nk’ibendera ry’igihugu, yitwaga: Mpatsibihugu.

Undi mwami uzwi mu mateka y’ingoma y’u Budaha n’u Bwishaza, ni Jeni rya Rurenge watwaye icyo gihugu mu iyaduka rya Gihanga ubwo yahangaga ingoma y’i Gasabo ahasaga mu wa 1091.

Jeni rya Rurenge ni we mwami wo mu Basinga wasyingiye Gihanga umugore we wa Kabiri Nyamususa ariwe babyaranye abana bagera kuri 5, na we wabaye nyirakuruza w’imiryango myinshi ikomoka ku Banyiginya. Jeni rya Rurenge, ni we wabaye Sekuruza w’Umuryango mugari w’Abarenge bakura igisekuruza cyabo kuri Jeni rya Rurenge.

Igihugu cy’u Budaha n’u Bwishaza, cyahanguwe n’umwami w’u Rwanda, Ruganzu Ndoli ahasaga mu wa 1510, ubutaka bwayo bwomekwa ku Rwanda.

Ingoma y’u Bungwe

Ingoma y’u Bungwe, ni imwe mu zahanzwe bwa mbere kuri ubu butaka bw’u Rwanda, aho yahanzwe mu bihe bimwe n’ingoma y’u Budaha n’u Bwishaza. Ni ingoma yari iherereye kuri ubu, mu Karere ka Huye, Gisagara, Nyaruguru na Nyamagabe y’Amajyepfo mu Mirenge ya: Kitabi, Tare, Kamegeri, Gasaka Kibilizi n’Uwinkingi.

Umukurambere wahanze ingoma y’u Bungwe, ni Mungwe (Muntu Ngwe) wari murumuna wa Rurenge, ari nawe wabaye inkomoko y’umuryango mugari w’Abenengwe bakura igisekuruza cyabo kuri Mungwe.

Gakondo nkuru y’umuryango w’Abenengwe bari abagenga b’ingoma y’u Bungwe ni mu Bisi bya Nyakibanda. Kuri ubu ni mu Mirenge ya Gishamvu, Huye, Karama na Ngoma yo mu Karere ka Huye. Muri ibyo bice, ni ho Abenengwe bororokeye, mbere y’uko bakwira u Rwanda rwose ndetse no mu bindi bihugu bituranye na rwo nk’u Burundi.

Undi mwami w’u Bungwe wagengaga icyo gihugu mu bihe bya Gihanga ahanga Ingoma y’i Gasabo, ni Rwamba, ari nawe wabaye sebukwe wa mbere kuko yamushyingiye umukobwa we Nyirampitangwe, babyaranye Gashubi na Gafomo.

Ingoma Ngabe y’icyo gihugu ari nayo yari ikirango cya cyo yitwaga ” Nyamibande”, yaje kwigarurirwa n’umwami w’u Rwanda Mutara Nsoro Semugeshi ahasaga mu wa 1543. Icyo gihe yica umwami wayo Rubunga rwa Samukende na nyina Benginzage (Nyagakecuru) Ingoma y’u Bungwe izima ityo, ubutaka bwayo bwomekwa ku Rwanda.

Ingoma y’u Rweya

Ingoma y’u Rweya, bakunze kwita u Rweya rw’u Mubali, ni kimwe mu bihugu bya mbere byahanzwe kuri ubu butaka bw’u Rwanda, kikaba n’igihugu cya mbere Abazigaba bahanze bakigera mu by’ino, ahasaga mu wa 400. Ni ingoma yari iherereye kuri ubu mu Karere ka Kayonza y’Amajyaruguru n’Akarere ka Gatsibo.

Gakondo nkuru yabo ari nayo yabaye intebe y’ingoma y’Abazigaba, ni mu Mirenge ya Mwiri na Murundi yo mu Karere ka Kayonza, wongeyeho Umurenge wa Rwimbogo wo mu Karere ka Gatsibo. Ako karere, ni ko bororokeyemo mbere y’uko bakwira mu gihugu cyose no mu bihugu duturanye nka Tanzania, Uganda n’u Burundi.

Umukurambere w’Abazigaba ari na we wahanze ingoma y’u Rweya rw’u Mubali, ni Kazigaba, ingoma Ngabe yabo nk’ikirango cy’igihugu yari” Sera”. Umwami wagengaga ingoma y’u Rweya rw’u Mubali mu iyaduka ry’Abanyiginya muri aka karere, ni Kabeja, ari na we se wa Nyamigezi wabaye sekuru wa Gihanga, kuko se Kazi yashatse Nyirarukangaga rwa Nyamigezi, babyarana Gihanga n’abandi bana.

Ingoma y’u Rweya rw’u Mubali, yigaruriwe na Kigeli Ndabarasa ahasaga mu wa 1740. Icyo gihe yica Biyoro umwami w’icyo gihugu, ingoma yabo izima ityo. Ubutaka bwayo babwomeka ku Rwanda.

Mu bice bikurikiyeho, tuzabatekerereza amateka y’ibindi bihugu byari bigandagaje kuri ubu butaka butaritwa Rwanda.


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