Uruhare rwa Mgr Perraudin muri Parmehutu, Kiliziya muri Jenoside… Ikiganiro cyihariye n’umushakashatsi Padiri Karangwa

Yanditswe na Karirima A. Ngarambe
Kuya 23 Nzeri 2020 saa 09:50
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Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe na Padiri Hildebrand Karangwa kuri Parmehutu, bugaragaza uburyo Musenyeri André Perraudin yagize uruhare rukomeye mu mahame ya Parmehutu, n’ibindi bikorwa byagejeje kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994.

Karangwa ni Padiri wa Diyoseze ya Kabgayi, wavukiye i Jabiro mu Murenge wa Nyarusange mu Karere ka Muhanga mu 1965, akaba umuhanga mu mateka kuko yayize i Paris muri Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales.

Mu 2010 yagiye kwihugura mu gukora ubushakashatsi kuri Jenoside muri Kaminuza ya Nottingham mu Bwongereza, akomeza gutanga amasomo y’amateka muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda ahahoze hitwa KIE, akaba ari n’umushakashatsi ku mateka ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, n‘umwanditsi w’ibitabo birimo n’amateka ya Jenoside.

Mu kiganiro na IGIHE, Padiri Karangwa yagarutse ku ruhare rwa Musenyeri André Perraudin mu gushyigikira Parmehutu, n’uburyo Kiliziya n’imiryango iyishamikiyeho byitwaye mu bihe byo gukwirakwiza ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside.

IGIHE: Mwanditse igitabo gisobanura uruhare rw’ishyaka rya Parmehutu mu mateka mabi yaranze u Rwanda kuva 1959 kugeza 1994. Ntibimenyerewe ko umupadiri cyandwa undi wihaye Imana yandika igitabo kirebana n’amateka ya Jenoside ndetse no kuri politiki muri rusange. Mwatubwira impamvu zabateye kwandika icyo gitabo?

Padiri Karangwa: Imbarutso zo gukora ubushakashatsi ku mateka ya Parmehutu zavuye ku mpaka zabaye hagati y’Umwepisikopi wa Kabgayi na CNLG ku munsi wo kwibuka ibohorwa ry’Abatutsi barokokeye i Kabgayi nanjye ndimo. Hari ku itariki ya 2 Kamena 2018, aho twibukaga itariki ya 2 Kamena 1994 ubwo Ingabo za FPR-Inkotanyi zatubohoraga ku buryo bw’igitangaza.

Kwandika kuri Parmehutu ndi umupadiri ni uko nize amateka nkaba ndi no ku rutonde rw’impuguke CNLG yavuze ko zishobora gukora ubushakashatsi kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Kwizerwa na ruriya rwego rwa Leta byanteye akanyabugabo, dore ko rufite ibyo rwahereyeho kuko ntigeze ntanga kandidatire.

Impaka zari zishingiye ku ngingo y’uko Dr Bizimana yemeje ko Mgr Perraudin ari ku isonga ry’abanditse "Manifeste y’Abahutu" yasohotse ku wa 24 Werurwe 1959, bityo akagira uruhare rukomeye mu gutanya Abanyarwanda, naho Umwepisikopi wa Kabgayi akemeza ko Manifeste yanditswe na Kayibanda na bagenzi be.

Gukora ubu bushakashatsi ndi umupadiri kuri jye ni ikintu gisanzwe, kandi numvaga ntabikoze byazakorwa n’undi kuko ari amateka. Ikindi ni uko ntashobora gukora umurimo nk’uyu ngamije gusenya Kiliziya yanjye cyangwa gusebya abayobozi bayo kimwe n’undi wese.

Ibyo nacukumbuye ku mubano wa Kabgayi na Parmehutu nerekanaga aho nabivanye, nkavuga n’ipaje nabisomyeho kandi nzirikana ko amateka atari urukiko, ahubwo ari umurimo w’ubucukumbuzi uzunganirwa n’abandi.

IGIHE: Hakunze kuba impaka nyinshi ku bijyanye n’abantu icyenda bitiriwe kuba aribo banditse inyandiko shingiro ya PARMEHUTU izwi ku izina rya "Manifeste y’Abahutu". Bamwe banavuga ko Musenyeri Perraudin yagize uruhare mu iyandikwa ryayo. Mwasanze iyo nyandiko yaranditswe na bande? Uruhare nyarwo rwa Musenyeri Perraudin ni uruhe?

Padiri Karangwa: Inyandiko yasinywe ntiyitwaga "Manifeste y’Abahutu" kuko iyi nyito yabayeho muri Nyakanga 1957 ihimbirwa mu Bubiligi. Mbere inyandiko yitwaga "Note sur l’aspect social du problème racial indigène au Rwanda."

Dutandukanye abanditsi nyakuri n’abayisinye aribo Max Niyonzima, Gregoire Kayibanda, Claver Ndahayo, Isidore Nzeyimana, Calliope Mulindahabi, Godefroid Sentama, Sylvestre Munyambonera, Joseph Sibomana na Joseph Habyarimana.

Aba ni bo bayisinye ariko si bo bayanditse uko ari icyenda. Nk’uwitwa Louis Mbaraga we twari duturanye naramumenye. We yasinye ibaruwa iherekeza Manifeste, ni yo mpamvu atari ku basinye inyandiko nyirizina. Avuga ko icyabimuteye ari uko Calliope Mulindahabi wakoraga mu bukarani kwa Mgr Perraudin yamusanze mu ishuri aho yigishaga i Kabgayi (ubu ni G.S. Kabgayi B) akamusinyisha yihuta kuko amasaha yo gutaha yari ageze.

Ngo yasinye adasomye asinya ibaruwa iherekeza ntiyasinya "Manifeste" ubwayo.

Twamenye ko Mbaraga yari yaramenye umugambi awubwiwe na Kayibanda bahuriye mu nzu y’ababyeyi i Kabgayi aho abagore babo bari mu cyumba kimwe baraje kwarama.

Umugore wa Mbaraga witwaga Mariya Nyirahabimana yari yaraje kubyara umwana we Pascal Ndimbira naho uwa Kayibanda witwaga Verediyana Mukagatare yaraje kubyara umwana we. Ngo Kayibanda yamubwiye ko bafite gahunda ndende kandi ko abazungu babari inyuma.

Abanditsi nyabo ba Manifeste ni Kayibanda, Munyangaju, Gitera na Mulindahabi. Iyi nyandiko mbere yo gusohoka yamenywe na ba padiri Arthur De Jemeppe, Innocent Gasabwoya, Boniface Musoni na Eugene Ernotte.

Kuvuga ko Mgr Perraudin atigeze yandika iyi Manifeste twasanze ari ukoroshya ikibazo.

Aha twiyambaje ibyo bita "Analyse du discours". Habaho inyandiko (texte), igakorwa muri "contexte" cyangwa "co-texte". Texte (inyandiko) twayigereranya n’ikibindi cy’intango igomba kugira urugata giterekwamo, n’ibindi ukikiza ku ruhande ngo ikibindi gishyuhe inzoga ishye vuba, iyo ikaba "contexte". Ufite intango nta rugata n’ibindi ukikizaho, inzoga ntiwayitara ngo ishye vuba, kereka haje irindi koranabuhanga.

Uruhare rwa Mgr Perraudin ruri cyane muri Contexte kandi na we yarabyanditse. Inyandiko ze twasesenguye zerekana ahubwo ko imbaraga yashyize muri ’contexte’ ari umurengera.

Twibutse ko Manifeste y’Abahutu yaje isubiza inyandiko y’Inama nkuru y’Igihugu (CSP) yateguye inyandiko yiswe "Mise au point", igasohoka ku itariki 22/02/1957. Iyo nyandiko yaregaga abakoloni ivuga ko barindagije Abanyarwanda bababuza kwiga amashuri. Urebye ukuntu Harroy yakirije yombi Manifeste y’Abahutu yayigeza i Bruxelles ikagwa ahashashe, ubona ko Manifeste kuri we yari ije gukubita ikofe Mise au point.

Kayibanda na Perraudin bafatwa nk'abagize uruhare rukomeye mu gukwirakwiza amatwara ya Parmehutu

IGIHE: Mukurikije ubushakashatsi mwakoze, ni izihe ngingo z’ingenzi zigaragaza ko abashinze Ishyaka rya PARMEHUTU barihaye isura n’imikorere bishingiye ku ivanguramoko ari naryo ryagejeje kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994?

Padiri Karangwa: Abashinze Parmehutu ntabwo bashingiye ku ngingo zisenya gusa; basabaga ibintu bine: Demokarasi ishingiye ku baturage, kureshya kw’abaturage mu nzego zose, itora ry’abaturage no gukuraho umuco w’uko mu Rwanda hari ubwoko busumba ubundi. Izi ngingo zari nziza.

Umwanditsi w’amateka François Lagarde yabivuze uko biri. Yanditse ko ahubwo Parmehutu yahemukiye Revolisiyo (le Parmehutu a trahi la revolution). Abahaye Parmehutu isura yo gutanya Abanyarwanda babikoranye amayeri menshi kuko bamwe muri Kiliziya ndetse n’i Bruxelles ntibashakaga ishyaka ritanya Abahutu n’Abatutsi.

Amaraporo ya surete yo mu 1958-1960 yerekana ko Kayibanda yari afite umugambi wo guheza Abatutsi, ariko ntabyerure nka Gitera.

Kayibanda, Makuza, Rwasibo, Mulindahabi, Niyonzima na Logiest ni bo beruye batinyura Abahutu bamwe babumvisha ko Umututsi ari ’communiste’ ni ukuvuga umwanzi wa Kiliziya na demokarasi. Icyo gihe hari intambara y’ubutita hagati y’ibihugu by’i Burayi n’ibyo mu Burasirazuba byari bishyigikiwe n’u Burusiya.

Ivanguramoko ryashimangiwe na Logiest wakoresheje imbaraga za gisirikare yavanaga muri Leta y’u Bubiligi. Inyito Parmehutu (nyuma yiswe Power) bwari uburyo bwo kuvangura ubwoko ku mugaragaro kuko ryoroheje ubukangurambaga bushingiye ku buhutu.

IGIHE: Hari amakuru yemeza ko imiryango yitwa iya Agisiyo Gatolika nka Legio Maria yewe n’ishyirahamwe TRAFIPRO, yifashishijwe n’ubuyobozi bwa PARMEHUTU mu icengezamatwara ryayo. Mu bushakashatsi mwakoze, mwasanze ibi bintu bifite ishingiro?

Padiri Karangwa: Ni byo bifite ishingiro. Nasanze Kayibanda ari we wari umukuru wa Lejiyo i Kabgayi. Gusa Mouvement Social Muhutu (MSM) imaze kwiyubururamo Parmehutu ku itariki 26/09/1959, Padiri De Renesse wari Padiri mukuru wa Kabgayi yabujije Kayibanda, Rwasibo na Mulindahabi kuvanga ubulejiyo na politiki.

Hagati aho buri misiyoni yari ifite abalejiyo cyane i Rwaza, Kanyanza, Cyanika kandi abayobozi benshi muri ayo maparuwasi bari n’abakuru ba Lejiyo. N’abasaveri bakuru ba mbere babaye aba Parmehutu ba mbere bakomeye, nk’uwitwa Andereya muramu wa Niyonzima wabaye umukuru w’abasaveri muri Kabgayi akaba yaranasinye "Manifeste ya Parmehutu" ku itariki 9/10/1959.

No ku mirenge ahenshi, abarwanashyaka babaga bari no mu miryango y’agisiyo gatolika no mu barimu, kandi birumvikana.

Nanone twibutse ko imiryango y’Agisiyo gatolika itari ifite gahunda ya Parmehutu nk’umugambi rusange wemewe na Kiliziya.

Byose byakorwaga mu mayeri, kandi si ko abakirisitu bose bitabiraga gahunda ya Kayibanda. Ikindi kinyamakuru cya Kiliziya cyafashije Parmehutu mu bukangurambaga ni Kinyamateka kimwe na Temps Nouveaux d’Afrique cyayoborwaga na Munyangaju.

Ibi twabigereranyije n’umurimo abafilozofe bakoze mu Bufaransa mbere ya 1789. Abo ni nka Voltaire, Montesqieu, J.J. Rousseau, Diderot na d’Alembert. Umwihariko wa Kinyamateka ni umupadiri Justin Kalibwami wayiyoboye mu 1958-1960, agasohora inyandiko rutwitsi.

IGIHE: Ubwicanyi bwakorewe Abatutsi bwa mbere mu mateka y’u Rwanda mu 1959 bwatangiriye i Kabgayi, kandi ari ahantu hari hakomeye Kiliziya Gatolika yashinze imizi. Mubisobanura mute?

Padiri Karangwa: Iki kibazo cyawe ni ho ruzingiye. Maze kwandika iki gitabo ni ho nongeyeho "Kabgayi na Kayibanda" mu nyito yacyo.

Koko Jenoside yavukiye i Kabgayi mu 1959 mu Ugushyingo. Ibi simbyemeza kuko nabibwiwe mu makuru asanzwe, ahubwo nabyemejwe n’ubu bushakashatsi nakoze, nsoma ibitabo byinshi nagaragaje ku musozo.

Undi muntu mukuru wabyemeje ni Nyiricyubahiro Mgr Kalibushi Wenceslas wahoze ari umwepisikopi wa Nyundo. Yabyanditse amaze kuzirikana amateka ya Jenoside agishyushye, ayandikira i Goma ku itariki ya 7 Nyakanga 1994.

Ntegura iki kiganiro na IGIHE nashyize inyandiko ya Mgr Kalibushi mu Kinyarwanda no mu Gifaransa, uwayishaka nayimuha. Avuga ko Mgr Perraudin ari nyirabayazana kuko ari we washyigikiye amacakubiri muri Kiliziya bityo Nyundo ikitwa intutsi, Kabgayi ikaba imputu. Kuba Kabgayi ari ho hatangiriye ubwicanyi, ni amateka mabi kandi ni ukuri. Ni ukubyakira gutyo.

Logiest yamennye amabanga y’uko Mgr Perraudin yeruye akabogamira ku bwoko, anyuranya na Mgr Classe wakundaga Abatutsi.

Twibutse ko ibi tutabiheraho ngo tuvuge ko Kabgayi ari Kiliziya yadukanye ubwicanyi. Kiliziya ya Kabgayi ubwayo nta kibazo ifite, ikibazo ni abantu bari bayiyoboye.

Ikindi ntabwo imikorere ya Classe na Perraudin yumvwaga kimwe na bagenzi babo. Nka Mgr Classe yari afite umupadiri witwa Schumacher wamwandikiye ko ibyo akora atari byo, kandi ko harimo kwibeshya.

Mgr Perraudin na we ntiyumvikanaga buri gihe na Mgr Bigirumwami, ariko Mgr Perraudin akamurusha ingufu ko ari archeveque. Twibutse ko Papa Benedigito wa XV yanditse urwandiko rwitwa "Maximum illud" ku itariki 19 Ugushyingo 1919, abuza abamisiyoneri kwivanga muri politiki.

Uko mbisobanura ni uko ari kimwe n’ibyo Perezida Sarkozy yigeze kuvugira i Kigali ko uruhare rw’u Bufaransa muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bwaturutse ku cyo yise "erreur grave d’appreciation". Mu gushyikira Parmehutu, ubuyobozi bwa Kabgayi nabwo bwaribeshye cyane.

Nanone kandi ntitwareka kuvuga ko Mgr Perraudin igihe cyose yarwanyije ko abapadiri b’Abanyarwanda bakora ishyirahamwe ribahuza mu rwego rw’igihugu. Mu nama yabereye mu Ruhengeri muri Gashyantare 1968, Mgr Perraudin yateranye amagambo na Padiri Stanislas Bushayija, kuko kuri Yubile y’imyaka 50 yahimbajwe mu 1967, abapadiri bari basabye ko "cadeau" ya yubile yaba kubaha ubwo burenganzira. Muri iyo nama, Mgr Gahamanyi yashatse kwivumbura ngo asohoke mu nama kuko abapadiri bamwe bavuguruje Mgr Perraudin.

IGIHE: Muri ubwo bwicanyi bwo mu 1959, havuzwe abapadiri b’abamisiyoneri gatolika bitwa Abapadiri Bera babushyigikiye, barimo nka Padiri Walter AELVOET, Leopold VANDERMEERSCH n’abandi. Mu bushakashatsi bwanyu mwasanze uruhare rw’abo bamisiyoneri ari uruhe?

Padiri Karangwa: By’umwihariko Padiri Alvoet yamenyekanye cyane mu byo yatangarije ikinyamakuru cy’abafulama cyitwa "De Morgen" cyo ku itariki 16/04/1994. Yari inararibonye, baza kumubaza iby’i Rwanda maze uwo munsi asohora amagambo yuzuye urwango, anashyigikira abakoraga Jenoside.

Yabaye umuyobozi wa Seminari nto y’i Kabgayi, ku buryo yabwiye abaseminari ku itariki 27 Nyakanga 1959 ko kuba umwami yatanze bakwiye kuvuza impundu. Ikindi yishimiye ngo ni ukuntu Abahutu bo mu Marangara bitakumaga batema Abatutsi mu Ugushyingo 1959.

Undi na we wigishaga mu Nyakibanda mu 1953-1960 ni Padiri Leopold Vandermeersch wigishaga Bibiliya.

Mu buhamya twahawe na Padiri Bernardin Muzungu, yatubwiye ko uyu kimwe na Padiri Ian Adriaenssens, ari bo bakongeje urwango rw’amoko mu bafaratiri mu Nyakibanda, kandi bashyigikiwe na Padiri Perraudin.

Aha ni ho Padiri Muzungu yahereye yemeza ko ingengabitekerezo ya Parmehutu ikomoka mu Nyakibanda mu 1953. Icyo gihe ni ho hari kaminuza, ku buryo ibitekerezo byahavaga byasakaraga mu baturage ku buryo bworoshye. Ibi nabyo ni amateka.

Ndumva nta musore wabigenderaho ngo bimubuze kujya kwiga mu Nyakibanda, aramutse yiyumvamo umuhamagaro wo kwiha Imana. Ikindi gitangaje ni uko aba bapadiri bombi bari abarezi mu maseminari, nabyo bikaba ari ikintu gikomeye.

IGIHE: Mu bwicanyi bwo muri 1959 havuzwe kandi uruhare rw’abakoloni bafashije PARMEHUTU kujya ku butegetsi no gukora ubwicanyi, bayobowe na Colonel Guy Logiest. Watubwira uruhare Colonel Logiest yagize muri ubwi bwicanyi no kugeza PARMEHUTU ku butegetsi?

Padiri Karangwa: Uyu Logiest yaje mu birori byo kwizihiza imyaka 25 y’ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda aherekeje umwami n’umwamikazi w’u Bubiligi, ndetse Perezida Habyarimana amwambika umudari w’ishimwe. Hari ku itariki 5 Nyakanga 1987.

Mu gitabo cye cyo mu 1988 yanditsemo akantu karimo gukunda ikuzo cyane (megalomanie), aho avuga ko bamwerekana yahize bose mu guhabwa amashyi y’urufaya, umwami w’u Bubiligi akagira ishyari… Ikindi ni uko muri icyo gitabo, aho kuvuga igihugu cy’Abanyarwanda avuga igihugu cy’Abahutu.

Iby’uyu Logiest wateranyije Abanyarwanda, nabyo Mgr Kalibushi yarabyemeje. Logiest na Major François Vanderstrtaen ni bo bagejeje Parmehutu ku ntsinzi.

Twibutse ko muri Guverinoma y’u Bubiligi, ba minisitiri ba za koloni uko basimburanaga, bose ari abagatolika. Icyo gihe ikintu cyari kigezweho kwari ukurwanya ubukomunisiti. Abakoranye na Logiest banamuha amabwiriza ya leta uko basimburanye ni De Schryver, Compte d’Aspremont Lynden na Paul-Henri Spaak.

Muri sena y’u Bubiligi harimo bamwe bumva mu Rwanda amoko akwiye gusangira ubutegetsi, abandi bakumva Revolisiyo yakorwa n’ishyaka rimwe rifite ingufu nk’uko mu Bufaransa byagenze mu 1789.

Ikindi ni uko Minisitiri w’Intebe Eyskens yifuzaga kugabanya amafaranga atangwa na leta muri Congo-Mbiligi.

Logiest na De Schryver babonaga bahaye imbaraga Parmehutu ya Kayibanda bafataga nk’umunyabwenge, bakabona ubutegetsi, bwaba bugiye mu maboko y’umuntu ushobora kubatura uwo mutwaro wasabaga leta ingengo y’imari nini. Ndetse n’umwami w’u Bubiligi nubwo atabyeruraga, yari ashyigikiye Parmehutu kubera kurwanya ubukomunisiti bw’Abatutsi.

Twibutse ko Umwami Rudahigwa yari yarashwanye na Kiliziya kubera ikibazo cy’amashuri yayo adafite ireme, kandi akabihuza na Minisitiri wa za koloni Auguste Buisseret, inshuti ya Harroy.

Logiest ni we wategetse ko Abatutsi bavanwa mu byabo ndetse ajujubya ishyaka rya Rader, yanga ko hari umuhutu warijyamo. Yakoresheje inama ba Adiminisitarateri bose i Kigali ku itariki 17/11/1959, ategeka ko bashyiraho ab’Abahutu gusa.

Hari aho abaturage bangaga umushefu, Logiest agategeka ko bica uwo bashakaga. Ugiye mu bwana bwa Logiest usanga ko yabaye imfubyi afite imyaka itandatu kubera Abadage bamwiciye umubyeyi. Ubugome yari afite ubona ko bwari bufite isoko mu bikomere bya kera.

IGIHE: Mgr Perraudin mbere y’uko yitaba Imana yasize yanditse igitabo gishimagiza imyumvire ya PARMEHUTU kandi gipfoya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Musanga ari iyihe mpamvu yatumye Mgr Perraudin akomeza gutsimbarara ku myumvire ya PARMEHUTU na nyuma y’iyicwa ry’Abatutsi muri Jenoside yabakorewe muri Mata - Nyakanga 1994?

Padiri Karangwa: Yewe, urankoreye! Nari narabuze urwego nanyuzamo ikibazo giteye isoni kandi kibabaje.

Kiriya gitabo cyabuze abantu bavuga ububi bwacyo mu rubyiruko, mu gihe turi muri gahunda z’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge. Kiriya gitabo kimaze imyaka 17 gisohotse, gisomwa mu maseminari, n’abandi bantu benshi baragifite.

Kirimo ipfobya rikomeye kandi muri Kiliziya Gatolika iyo umwepisikopi avuze ni Kiliziya iba ivuze. Iyo yanditse iyo nyandiko igomba kwigishwa nka gatigisimu. Mu 1998 ’Osservatore Romano’ y’i Vatikani yigeze kwandika ko mu Rwanda habaye jenoside ebyiri: iyakorewe Abatutsi n’iyakorewe Abahutu.

Icyo gihe abepisikopi bo mu Rwanda bandikiye iki kinyamakuru babivuguruza. Sinzi impamvu Mgr Perraudin we yandika ko Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ari bo ba nyirabayazana, abepisikopi ntibagire icyo babivugaho.

Muzabisome muri icyo gitabo ku ipaji ya 277 ahagana hasi. Ibi mbona ari imwe mu mpamvu mu bapadiri bamwe usangamo ipfobya, kuko bazi ko bashyigikiwe, cyane ko kiriya gitabo gisomwa mu maseminari n’ahandi.

Njye mbona abepisikopi cyane cyane uwa Kabgayi, bakwiye kwamagana mu nyandiko ibyo Mgr Perraudin yanditse mu 2003, na Minisiteri y’Uburezi ikagira icyo ikivugaho mu birebana na gahunda za Leta y’ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda.

Padiri Karangwa Hildebrand ni umwanditsi akaba n'umushakashatsi
Padiri Karangwa ni we wanditse igitabo “Parmehutu (1959-1973): Imwe Mu Nkomoko za Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi Mu 1994. Kabgayi na Kayibanda

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