Impungenge ku igabanyuka rya zahabu mu nda y’isi mu gihe ibiciro byayo bizamuka

Yanditswe na Dufitumukiza Salathiel
Kuya 26 Nzeri 2020 saa 11:33
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Zahabu ni umwe mu mitungo kamere Isi ya none ihagarariyeho; bijyanye n’uko muri gahunda zose himakajwe uburyo bw’ikoranabuhanga rigezweho, ndetse ibikoresho byinshi byifashishwa muri iryo koranabuhanga bikaba bikorwa hifashishijwe Zahabu.

Izamuka ry’ibiciro byayo rikomeje guhangayikisha Isi, nyuma y’aho rivuye ku 1,514.7$ kuri ‘ounce’ imwe (ingana na garama 28 mu bipimo bya Zahabu) mu mpera za 2019 rikagera ku 2,000$ muri Kanama 2020.

Inzobere zivuga ko iri zamuka ry’ibiciro ryatewe n’icyorezo cya covid-19 cyugarije Isi; aho ibigo byinshi bikora ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro na zimwe mu mbuga zifashishwa byagabanyije abakozi, ibindi bigafunga mu buryo bwo kwirinda icyorezo.

Izi nzobere kandi zigaragaza ko n’ubusanzwe mu bihe nk’ibi by’ihungabana ry’ubukungu, Zahabu zikunze kubikwa na bamwe nka bumwe mu buryo bwizewe bwo kurengera ubukungu bwabo, bigatuma zihenda cyangwa zikaba nkeya ku isoko.

Aya mabuye afatwa nk’ikimenyetso cy’ubukire n’ishyiga ry’inyuma mu ikorwa ry’ibikoresho by’ikoranabuhanga, agira isoko isa n’ipimye bivugwa ko bitanatungurana ikamye.

Inama mpuzamahanga igenzura isoko rya zahabu ku isi, World Gold Council mu 2019 yagaragaje ko hacukuwe toni 5, 531 za Zahabu, umubare wagabanyutseho 1% ugereranyije n’uw’umwaka wawubanjirije wa 2018. Bivugwa ko iri ari ryo gabanyuka rinini ryari ribayeho mu bucukuzi bw’aya mabuye kuva mu 2008.

Umuvugizi w’ikigo gishinzwe guteza imbere isoko rya Zahabu muri World Gold Council, Hannah Brandstraetter avuga ko ubucukuzi bwa Zahabu yo hejuru bushobora kuba bwarakozwe cyane mu gihe kitagenwe.

Yagize ati “Impamvu ibiva mu bucukuzi bishobora kugabanyuka mu myaka iri imbere bijyanye n’uko ibyari bisigaye biri gushira, ndetse n’inganzo nshya zikaba zikomeje kubura, bishobora kugaragara ko Zahabu yo hejuru yacukuwe cyane mbere y’igihe gikwiye.”

Ku rundi ruhande, inzobere zirimo Ross Norman zivuga ko n’aho Zahabu yo hejuru yaba itakigaragara bidasobanuye ko umusaruro uva mu bucukuzi wahita utangira kugabanyuka ako kanya; ahubwo ko igabanyuka rishobora kuzagaragara nko mu myaka myinshi iri imbere.

Ingano ya Zahabu isigaye mu Isi, ibarwa mu buryo bubiri; hari iyitwa “reserves” yamaze kugaragara n’iyitwa “resources” itaravumburwa. Nubwo bwose kumenya ingano y’itaravumburwa bigoye, no kumenya ingano y’iri mu duce twamaze kugaragara biracyari ingorabahizi.

Ikigo cy’Abanyamerika cyiga ku bijyanye n’imitungo kamere (US Geological Survey) kigereranya ko nibura Zahabu ya ‘reserves’ ihari isaga toni 50,000. Ni mu gihe hagereranywa ko toni 190,000 za Zahabu ari zo zimaze gucukurwa n’ubwo iyo mibare igenda ihindagurika.

Inzobere mu by’imibumbe n’ubukungu Sinead O’Sullivan, avuga ko uretse ku Isi, hari n’ahandi hari Zahabu yagombye kuzifashishwa harimo ku Kwezi, ku mugabane wa Antarctica no munsi y’inyanja; ariko agaragaza ko uburyo bwo kuyicukura bwaba buhenze kurusha agaciro ka yo.

Kugeza ubu mu Isi ahamaze gucukurwa Zahabu nyinyi ni muri Witwatersrand Basin ho muri Afurika y’Epfo, bivugwa ko 30% bya Zahabu yacukuwe mu Isi ari ho yavuye. Ibindi bihugu ni u Bushinwa, Indonesia, Australia na Nevada muri Amerika.

Ubushinwa ni bwo bucukura Zahabu nyinshi, Canada, u Burusiya na Peru bikaba ku isonga mu kuyicuruza.

Hari impungenge ko zahabu icukurwa mu isi yazaba nke mu myaka iri imbere

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