Uko u Rwanda rwahawe impuruza ko igihugu cyose gishobora kwandura SIDA mu myaka icumi gusa

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 10 Ukwakira 2020 saa 07:50
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Kimwe nkuko byari biri mu myaka ya 1990, virusi itera SIDA iracyari ikibazo gihangayikishije Isi ndetse gikomeje guhitana umubare w’abantu benshi kuko nta muti nta rukingo ifite.

Icyakora uko imyaka yagiye ishira, nibura ubu hari icyizere ko uwamenye ko yanduye virusi itera SIDA nibura ahabwa imiti igabanya ubukana, yakwitwararika amabwiriza yahawe akaba yarama nk’abandi bose.

Mu mwaka wa 1990, abari bazi SIDA mu Rwanda n’ubukana bwayo bari bake cyane, nyamara yo umunsi ku munsi niko yagendaga imunga, ku buryo u Rwanda rwahawe intabaza ko nirutagira ibyo rukora byihuse, mu myaka 11 gusa yari imbere abaturage bose bashoboraga kuba baranduye SIDA.

Raporo “Analyse géographique de l’incidence du V.I.H. et du SIDA au Rwanda en 1990”, yakozwe na Jean-François Gotanegre igasohoka muri Les cahiers d’outre –mer, igaragaza ko umurwayi wa mbere wa SIDA yabonetse mu Rwanda mu mwaka wa 1983.

Hari hashize iminsi mike icyo cyorezo kigaragara mu bihugu bitandukanye ku Isi, Afurika yo Munsi y’Ubutayu bwa Sahara ikaba ariyo yari yibasiwe cyane ugereranyije n’ibindi bice by’Isi.

U Rwanda mu 1992 rwari ku mwanya wa munani muri Afurika mu kugira umubare w’abarwayi benshi ba virusi itera SIDA. Ni umubare wavuye ku barwayi 10 mu 1983 ukagera ku barwayi 6578 mu 1992. Bivuze ko buri mwaka biyongeraga ku kigero cya 91 %.

Abakoze raporo bavuze ko hashingiwe kuri uwo muvuduko, u Rwanda rutagize icyo rukora mu yindi myaka 11 yari imbere, rwari kwisanga abaturage bose banduye.

Bagize bati “Ubwandu bukomeje kwiyongera kuri uyu muvuduko, abatuye u Rwanda bose bashobora kua banduye mu myaka 11 iri imbere. Impamvu ni uko SIDA iri ku mwanya wa gatanu mu ndwara zica abantu benshi mu Rwanda, ni icyorezo haba ku mibereho ya muntu n’ubukungu bw’igihugu ku buryo gikwiriye kwitabwaho mu gihe hagitegerejwe urukingo.”

Urubyiruko ruri hagati y’imyaka 19 na 34 nirwo rwari ku isonga mu kwandura, kandi abenshi bagaragara mu bice by’imijyi by’umwihariko muri Kigali na Butare.

Ubwiyongere bwa virusi itera SIDA mu Rwanda mu myaka ya 1980 kugeza mu 1990, abakoze raporo babishingira ku bintu byinshi.

Uretse mu mijyi, ahandi hagaragaraga ubwiyongere bukabije bwa virusi itera SIDA ni ahantu hari hatangiye gutera imbere nk’ahacukurwaga amabuye y’agaciro, ahahingwaga icyayi, ikawa, umuceri, ibirayi n’ahabaga hari ibigo bya gisirikare.

Hari abanduriraga kwa muganga batabizi

Guhinduka kw’imibereho y’Abanyarwanda, ubwiyongere bw’abaturage, gusubira inyuma k’ubukungu n’ibibazo bya politiki byari mu gihugu nabyo biri mu bitungwa agatoki kuba byaragize uruhare runini mu bwiyongere bw’abanduye virusi itera SIDA.

Guhera mu 1989, ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bwasubiye inyuma bitewe n’ihungabana ry’ubukungu n’ibiciro by’ibyoherezwaga hanze. Icyo gihe hahise hakubitiraho intambara yo kubohora igihugu.

Hari benshi batangiye gutakaza imirimo kubera ihungabana ry’ubukungu, abashomeri bariyongera.

Guverinoma y’u Rwanda nayo ntiyari ishyize imbaraga nyinshi mu kurwanya icyo cyorezo, ndetse inzobere zigaragaza ko hari n’imibare yatangazwaga nyamara ihabanye n’ukuri.

Nko mu mwaka wa 1990, u Rwanda rwamenyesheje Ishami ry’Umuryango Mpuzamahanga ryita ku Buzima (OMS) ko abantu bashya banduye Virusi Itera SIDA ari 1121.

Jean-François Gotanegre mu isesengura yakoze, yavuze ko muri iyo mibare yatangajwe hatabariwemo ababonetseho virusi ya SIDA bipimishirije mu bigo byagenzurwaga na Croix Rouge. Avuga ko ubaruye neza, nibura muri uwo mwaka bivugwa ko mu gihugu hari hari abafite virusi itera SIDA bagera ku 9000.

Serivisi z’ubuzima mu Rwanda nazo zaracumbagiraga kuko zahabwaga ingengo y’imari ya 5 % by’ingengo y’imari yose mu gihugu, nayo yagabanutse cyane kubera ihungabana ry’ubukungu. Inkunga nyinshi igamije guhashya virusi itera SIDA yaturukaga mu mahanga. Ibyo byatumaga kwa muganga hataboneka ibikoresho bihagije byo kwita ku banduye virusi itera SIDA.

Abaganga ba magendu kandi bari bakigaragara ku bwinshi mu Rwanda, ku buryo abenshi mu barwayi bashya ariho banyuraga mbere yo kuremba cyane ngo bagere kwa muganga. Ibyo byumvikanisha ko hari n’umubare w’abantu bashobora kuba baragiye bandurira muri ibyo kubera ibikoresho bidasukuye nk’inshinge bagiye baterwa n’abaganga ba magendu, uwanduye akaba yakwanduza abandi benshi.

Bishoboka cyane kandi ko hari umubare munini w’Abanyarwanda waba waranduriye mu guhabwa amaraso kwa muganga, kuko virusi ya SIDA bwa mbere yavuzwe mu mu Rwanda 1983. Mu mwaka wa 1985 nibwo hatangiye ibyo gupima virusi itera SIDA mu batanga amaraso, basanga mu bice by’imijyi, 18 % by’abayatangaga baranduye mu gihe mu cyaro byari biri kuri 4 %.

Ibyo bisobanuye ko hari abantu bahawe amaraso yanduye muri iyo myaka, nabo bagakurizamo kwandura no kuba bakwanduza abandi.

Kubera intambara n’ihungabana ry’ubukungu mu 1990, Gotanegre avuga ko byageze aho amikoro akaba make, ibitaro bimwe na bimwe bigahitamo kongera guha abarwayi amaraso batabanje kuyapima. Nabyo byumvikanisha ko hari abashobora kuba barahanduriye virusi itera SIDA.

Kubona udukingirizo muri ibyo bihe nabyo byari ingume. Mu 1988, hari isuzumwa ryakozwe ku ndwara ya SIDA, 3.5 % by’abajijwe aba aribo bavuga ko bakoresha agakingirizo.

Kugeza mu 1990, buri kwezi mu Rwanda hatangwaga udukingirizo tw’ubuntu tungana n’ibihumbi 60. Twabaga ari duke kuko utwinshi twahitaga dufatwa n’abasirikare, abanyeshuri n’abatuye muri Kigali.

Kubera ihungabana ry’ubukungu, inkunga mvamahanga zatangiye kugabanuka mu 1990 ndetse n’izajyaga mu kurwanya SIDA biba uko ku buryo udukingirizo twatangiye kuba duke tukajya tugurishwa amafaranga muri za farumasi na za butiki. Agakingirizo kamwe kaguraga amafaranga 10. Icyo gihe yari amafaranga menshi kuko ku munsi umukozi wa Leta yabarirwaga 100 Frw ku munsi.

Hari imigenzo Nyarwanda kandi nayo yakekwagaho kuba intandaro yo gukwirakwiza icyorezo nko guca indasago, kunywana, kurumika n’indi.

Urubyiruko n’abagore ku isonga mu bari bibasiwe

Isesengura rya Jean-François Gotanegre rigaragaza ko mu 1990, ababana na virus itera SIDA mu Rwanda bari biganjemo urubyiruko ruri hagati y’imyaka 19 na 34.

Muri rusange, mu 1990 abagore mu Rwanda nibo bari bibasiwe cyane na virusi itera SIDA kurusha abagabo kuko banganaga na 50,4 % mu gihe abagabo bari 49,6 %.

Mu bagore banduye, abakobwa bari hagati y’imyaka 19 na 34 bari bihariye 66 %, naho mu bagabo abasore bari muri iyo myaka bihariye 56 %.

Ugendeye ku bwoko bw’imirimo, abakozi ba Leta bazaga imbere, hagakurikiraho abakora ubukorikori n’abakora mu bigo by’abikorera, abacuruzi, abashoferi, indaya n’abasirikare.

Ingaragu n’abantu batabana n’abagore babo cyangwa abagabo babo, nibo bari ku isonga ry’abandura icyo gihe kuko bari bihariye hafi 46 % by’abanduye bose.

Nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yashyize imbaraga mu kurwanya SIDA hakorwa ubukangurambaga bushishikariza abantu kwirinda.

Icyo gihe kandi virusi ya SIDA yari ikiyongera ahanini biturutse ku ngaruka za Jenoside kuko hari bamwe mu bagore n’abakobwa bafashwe ku ngufu bakanduzwa, amikoro make mu baturage n’ibindi.

Guhera mu mwaka wa 2000 nibwo hatewe intambwe igaragara mu guhangana na virus itera SIDA, imiti igabanya ubukana itangira kuboneka ku bwinshi, uburyo bwo kwirinda buraguka, udukingirizo turaboneka henshi n’ibindi.

Kugeza ubu, 3 % by’Abanyarwanda nibo bafite ubwandu bwa virusi itera SIDA kandi ni umubare umaze igihe kinini utarenga aho.

U Rwanda rwarenze zimwe mu ntego Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye rishinzwe kurwanya SIDA (UNAIDs) ryihaye yo kugeza ubuvuzi ku bafite virusi itera Sida mu 2020.

Ni intego (90-90-90) isobanura ko abafite virusi itera Sida bazaba bazi uko bahagaze ari 90%, abafata imiti 90% n’ubwandu bwaragabanutse kuri 90%.

Mu Rwanda abapfa bazira icyorezo cya SIDA bagabanutseho 82% mu myaka 20 ishize.

Mu myaka ya mbere ubwo SIDA yagaragaraga mu Rwanda, ubwandu bwiyongereye mu buryo budasanzwe

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