U Rwanda rwiteguye gute gutabara mu gihe kimwe mu birunga birwegereye cyaba kirutse?

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 3 Ukwakira 2020 saa 07:42
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Kuruka kw’ikirunga n’izindi ngaruka zibikurikira nk’imitingito, ni ibintu bitungurana ndetse ku buryo bititeguwe neza cyangwa hadakozwe ubutabazi bwihuse, hashobora kwangirika ibitagira ingano.

Ubushakashatsi buherutse gukorwa n’Ikigo cy’ubushakashatsi ku Birunga, Goma Volcano Observatory, bwerekanye ko ikirunga kiri muri aka gace cya Nyiragongo gishobora kongera kuruka hagati y’imyaka ine n’irindwi iri imbere.

Iri ruka niriramuka ribayeho, inzobere zigaragaza ko rizagira ingaruka ku bantu barenga miliyoni ebyiri batuye mu nkengero z’iki kirunga cyane cyane mu Mujyi wa Goma n’uwa Rubavu mu Rwanda.

Ingaruka z’iri ruka si inkuru mbarirano ku Rwanda na Congo kuko si ubwa mbere iki kirunga cyaba kirutse. Ikirunga cya Nyiragongo giheruka ku ruka tariki 17 Mutarama 2002, nyuma yo kuruka nanone tariki 10 Mutarama 1977.

Ubwo giheruka kuruka cyahitanye abantu 147. Uretse ibyo kandi, 13 % by’igice gituwe mu mujyi wa Goma byarangiritse icyo gihe , ikirere kirahumana ndetse ibikoma bimwe bijya mu kiyaga cya Kivu. Inzu ziri hagati ya 12000 na 15000 zarangiritse, abantu ibihumbi 400 bava mu byabo.

Iryo ruka ryatumye mu mujyi wa Goma na Rubavu hamwe na hamwe ubutaka bugenda bwiyasa, ibimeyetso bibi ku gace karimo ibirunga bicyaka kuko isaha n’isaha iyo mitutu yaba inzira y’ikirunga mu gihe cyaba kiri kongera kuruka.

Mu 2002 kandi ubwo Nyiragongo yarukaga, ibikoma byayo byaboneje mu kiyaga cya Kivu. Ni ibintu bibi cyane ku kiyaga cyizwiho kubamo Gaz, kuko hashobora kuba iturika ryagira ingaruka ku batuye Rubavu na Goma.

Igice cy’Amajyaruguru ashyira Uburengerazuba bw’u Rwanda kigizwe n’ibirunga umunani birimo bibiri bicyaka na bitandatu byazimye. Ibirunga byaka ni Nyamulagira na Nyiragongo naho ibyazimye ni Gahinga, Muhabura, Bisoke, Kalisimbi, Mikeno na Sabyinyo

Nyamulagira imaze kuruka inshuro 52 uhereye mu kinyejana cya 20 kugeza ubu.

U Rwanda ruri maso

Iruka ry’ikirunga ni kimwe mu biza karemano kigira ingaruka ku bihumbi by’abaturage hirya no hino ku isi buri mwaka. Igice cy’Uburengerazuba bw’u Rwanda, ni kimwe mu bigerwaho n’ingaruka zuruka ry’ibirunga biherere mu burasirazuba bwa Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo bicyaka.

Minisiteri y’Ubutabazi ifite gahunda y’iteganyabikorwa igamije kwitegura no guhanana n’ingaruka zaterwa n’iruka ry’ibirunga cyangwa umitingito mu gihe byaba bibaye. Ni gahunda zavugururwe mu mwaka wa 2019 zirimo igamije kwitegura no guhangana n’ibiza biturutse ku iruka ry’ibirunga (National contingency plan for volcanic eruption) ndetse n’ubutabazi n’ubwirinzi igihe habaye umutingito.

Ni uburyo bugamije gutegura icyakorwa ibyo biza biramutse bibaye, gushyiraho uburyo bw’ubutabazi bwihuse n’ibindi.

Iyo ikirunga kirutse, ivu, imyotsi n’ibikoma bivamo bishobora guhitana ubuzima bw’abantu, ndetse n’ibikorwa remezo.

Ntabwo byoroshye kumenya neza igihe ikirunga kizarukira ariko iyo ubugenzuri bukozwe mu buryo buhoraho ari nako ibikoresho bya ngombwa bihora biteguye, bishobora kugabanya ibyago n’ingano y’ibyakangirika.

Mu mwaka wa 2002, ibikoma by'ikirunga cya Nyiragongo byangije byinshi mu mujyi wa Goma

Mu gihe bigaragara ko ikirunga cyaka nubwo haba nta bimenyetso by’uko kizaruka, u Rwanda rwateguwe ingamba zirimo gukora inyigo y’uburyo bibaye abaturage bavanwa mu bice byibasiwe, gutegura abazatanga ubutabazi, aho abaturage bashyirwa n’ubukangurambaga.

Mu gihe ikirunga kiri kuruka cyangwa kigiye kuruka, abashinzwe ubutabazi bagomba guhita bashyira mu bikorwa gahunda yo gutabara abaturage byihuse haherewe ku bibasiwe kurusha abandi.

Mu bihe bisanzwe, ubukangurambaga bugomba gukomeza gukorwa abaturage bakamenya uko bitwara mu gihe byaba bibaye. Hateguwe kandi uburyo bw’imikoranire hagati y’u Rwanda na Congo mu gihe kimwe muri ibyo birunga cyaba kirutse.

Mu gihe kandi ikirunga cyarutse, inzobere mu by’iruka ry’ibirunga zigomba kuzanwa zigatanga inama. Abashinzwe umutekano bagomba kuwukaza mu gace ikirunga cyarukiyemo no guhagarika ibikorwa byahakorerwaga bitari iby’ingenzi.

Ingamba ku mitingito ikunze gushegesha uburengerazuba bw’u Rwanda

Kubera aho u Rwanda ruherereye, ni igihugu cyibasirwa cyane n’imitingito kandi idacunzwe neza ishobora kwangiza byinshi. Imitingito yatangiye kumvikana mu Rwanda guhera mu myaka ya 1900, ikaba yibasira cyane abatuye mu turere twegereye ikiyaga cya Kivu.

Urugero nka tariki 3 Gashyantare 2008, mu Rwanda habaye umutingito ufite ibipimo bya 6.2, wibasira cyane ibice by’amajyepfo ashyira Uburengerazuba bw’u Rwanda. Wahitanye abantu 113, abandi 1643 barakomereka, inzu 1202 zirimo ibitaro n’amashuri.

Uturere twa Rusizi na Nyamasheke nitwo twibasiwe cyane. Minisiteri y’Uburezi yagaragaje ko ibigo bine by’amashuri yisumbuye n’amashuri abanza 20 ariyo yangiritse bikabije. Ibitaro nka Bushenge byarangiritse ku kigero cya 80 %.

Tariki 23 Nzeri 2016 na tariki 26 Ukwakira 2016 muri Rusizi na Nyamasheke habaye indi mitingito ikomeye yangije inzu 68 harimo n’isoko rya kijyambere rya Kamembe, ikigo nderabuzima cya Mashesha na Hotel yo mu mujyi wa Kemembe.

Mu guhangana n’imitingito, Guverinoma y’u Rwada ivuga ko mu duce tuzwiho kwibasirwa nayo, Ikigo gishinzwe ubuziranenge kigomba kugena ibikoresho bikoreshwa mu kubaka inzu aho hantu ku buryo biba ari ibishbora guhangana n’umutingito. Ibyo kandi bijyana no kubaka inzu zabanje guhabwa ibyangombwa.

Ku nyubako zamaze kubakwa muri utwo duce, zigomba gusubirwamo zikubakwa ku buryo zibasha kwihanganira umutingito. Ivugururwa kandi rigomba gukorwa ku zindi nyubako zubatswe mbere zihuriza hamwe abantu benshi nk’amashuri, ibitaro, amasoko, gereza, hoteli n’izindi.

Gushyiraho uburyo bwihuse bumenyekanisha ko umutingito ugiye kuba (Earthquake Early-Warning). Iyo mpuruza ifasha abantu kuba bahunga kare ku buryo ibyakwangizwa n’umutingito bitaba byinshi.

Abaturage kandi bagomba gukorerwa ubukangurambaga buhoraho bakamenya ingaruka z’imitingito n’icyo bakora mu gihe umutingito ubaye.

Minisiteri y’Ubutabazi igaragaza ko Leta igomba gushyiraho itsinda rihoraho ritanga inama n’amakuru ku buryo bwo kwirinda imitingito n’iruka ry’ibirunga, no gukora igenamigambi ry’uburyo biramutse bibaye byarwanywa.

Mu bindi bizajya bikorwa harimo gukora inyigo n’ibishushanyombonera by’uko inyubako zihangana n’imitingito ziba ziteye, guhugura abashinzwe imyubakire mu duce twagaragayemo kwibasirwa n’imitingito bakamenya neza uburyo bwiza bwo kubaka ahantu nk’aho hakunze kwibasirwa no guhugura abafundi.

Leta kandi igomba gushyiraho ikigega cy’ingoboka cyo kwitabaza mu gihe habayeyo imitingito.

Mu gihe cy’imitingito n’iruka ry’ibirunga, Guverinoma y’u Rwanda iteganya ibikoresho byafashishwa abaturage mu gihe ibibazo nk’ibyo bibayeho nk’aho kubashyira, ibikoresho baba bakoresha nk’ibyo kuryamira no kwiyorosa, ibikoresho by’isuku, ibiribwa n’ibindi.

Mu bindi bikorwa ni nko gushyiraho amatsinda y’abakozi n’abakorerabushake kandi bagahora bahugurwa ku buryo bwo guhangana n’imitingito n’iruka ry’ibirunga.

Nyiragongo ni kimwe mu birunga bicyaka ku isi bishobora kuruka isaha n'isaha
Ifoto igaragaza umwana agenda hafi y'umiriro n'ibikoma bya Nyiragongo ubwo byisukaga mu mujyi wa Goma mu 2002
Abantu benshi bavuye mu byabo ubwo ikirunga cya Nyiragongo giheruka kuruka
Imyotsi myinshi yamaze iminsi izamuka mu kiyaga cya Nyiragongo ubwo giheruka kuruka mu 2002
Iyi foto iragaragaza imodoka zarengewe n'ibikoma by'ikirunga cya Nyiragongo mu mwaka wa 2002
Ikigo Goma Volcano Observatory gihora gikurikirana ibirunga bya Nyamulagira na Nyiragongo, bimwe muri bike bicyaka ku isi
Mu mwaka wa 2016 umutingito wangije byinshi mu karere ka Rusizi na Nyamasheke

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