Ubwiyongere bw’imodoka kuva ku munsi wa mbere zigera mu Rwanda

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 29 Ukwakira 2020 saa 07:33
Yasuwe :
0 0

Ibaze uko byari bimeze icyo gihe, abanyarwanda babona imodoka bwa mbere! Si kera kuko bamwe mu barame bavutse muri iyo myaka hari abakiriho ariko ni mbarwa. Mu 1924 nibwo imodoka ya mbere yageze mu Rwanda, kuva ubwo ubuzima n’imibereho y’abaturage itangira guhinduka haba mu buryo abantu bagendaga, uko bacuruzaga n’ibindi.

Imodoka kimwe n’ibindi binyabiziga byaje nyuma, byazanye impinduramatwara mu buryo abanyarwanda bari bamaze imyaka n’imyaka bakora ingendo, ibavana ku kugenda n’amaguru urugendo rwashoboraga kumara amezi, ihindura uburyo imizigo yikorerwaga gusa ku mutwe, abazi kubyaza inyungu amahirwe mashya baba babonye urwaho.

Raporo Transports routiers et commerce intérieur au Rwanda, yasohotse mu kinyamakuru Cahiers d’outre-mer mu 1985, igaragaza ko mbere y’umwaka wa 1914, mu Rwanda hari utuyira tw’abanyamaguru gusa, umuhanda wari uhari wari muto uva mu Mujyi wa Kigali ukagera kuri Nyabarongo.

Icyo gihe ubuzima abanyarwanda bari babayeho ntibari bakeneye imihanda minini inyuramo imodoka kuko ntazo bari bafite, utuyira twari duhagije kuri bo n’amatungo yabo.

Nyuma ya 1916 ubwo Ababiligi baragizwaga u Rwanda, nibwo ibinyabiziga bya mbere byahageze, hatangira no gukorwa imihanda igamije kunyuramo ibinyabiziga.

Raporo igaragaza ko imodoka ya mbere yageze mu Rwanda mu 1924, kuva ubwo hatangira kwagurwa utuyira twari dusanzwe ari utw’abanyamaguru no gukora mihanda.

Mu 1927 guhanga imihanda mishya byagiye mu igenamigambi ry’Ababiligi, ku buryo byageze mu 1951 nibura kuri buri kilometero kare 100, habarizwamo imihanda ingana na kilometero 15.5.

Nubwo imihanda yubakwaga, nayo yabaga idakomeye cyane kuko bivugwa ko imihanda minini itabashaga gucamo imodoka irengeje toni umunani, imihanda iciriritse yanyuragamo imodoka zitarengeje toni eshanu mu gihe imihanda yo ku rwego rwo hasi yanyuragamo imodoka zitarengeje toni 2.5.

Nyuma y’intambara ya kabiri y’Isi, imihanda yakomeje kongererwa ubushobozi ku buryo imodoka zifite toni zigera kuri 15 zashobora kuhanyura. Mu 1961, imihanda mu Rwanda yari imaze kwiyongera ku buryo muri kilometero kare 100, habarurwaga imihanda ifite kilometero 21.

Nyuma y’ubwigenge u Rwanda rwashyize imbaraga cyane mu kubaka imihanda iruhuza n’ibindi bihugu mu koroshya ubuhahirane nk’igihugu kidakora ku nyanja. Imihanda imwe n’imwe cyane ihuza u Rwanda n’amahanga yashyizwemo kaburimbo n’indi mike yo muri Kigali.

Ingano y’imihanda mu gihugu yakomeje kwiyongera ku buryo mu 1982 mu Rwanda kuri kilometero kare 100, habarurwaga imihanda ingana na kilometero kare 41 mu 1982. Muri uwo mwaka, mu Rwanda habarizwaga imihanda ingana na kilometero 500 irimo kaburimbo.

Mu 1986, 30 % by’imihanda yari iri mu Rwanda yari irimo kaburimbo. Icyo gihe habarirwaga imihanda ifite kilometero 3000.

Uko imihanda yiyongeraraga, imodoka nazo zarushagaho kwiyongera

Imodoka ya mbere imaze kugera mu Rwanda, imihanda igatangira gukorwa n’amafaranga atangiye kuba igikoresho cy’ubuhahirane, abantu batangiye kuzitunga ku bwinshi ndetse bamwe ibabera isoko y’ubukungu nk’igikoresho gishya cyari kije gukemura ikibazo cy’ubwikorezi bw’ibintu no gutwara abantu.

Ibyo ntibyavanaho ko hari n’abaziguraga bishimisha cyangwa bashaka kugaragaza icyubahiro cyabo n’ubukire.

Kugeza mu 1930, mu Rwanda hari imodoka zibarirwa mu binyacumi ariko byageze mu 1947 zimaze kugera muri 300. Imodoka zavuye kuri 368 mu 1947 zigera ku 1200 mu 1961.

Raporo ivuga ko mu 1936, nibura mu mihanda yo mu Rwanda hatambukaga imodoka 13 ku munsi. Mu 1963, nibura mu mihanda yo mu Rwanda habarwaga ko haca imodoka 30 ku munsi, mu 1981 hagaca nibura imodoka 943.

Umuhanda Kigali-Kanombe niwo wabaga wihariye urujya n’uruza runini rw’imodoka ziwunyuramo kuko mu 1943 nibura honyine hanyuraga urujya n’uruza rw imodoka 150 ku munsi, bigera ku modoka 1400 mu 1970, naho mu 1981 ku munsi hagaca imodoka 14000.

U Rwanda rumaze kubona ubwigenge, umubare w’abatunze imodoka mu Rwanda warushijeho kwiyongera bidasanzwe ahanini bivuye ku gutera imbere k’ubucuruzi, kwiyongera kw’abafite akazi, gutera imbere k’ubuhinzi bw’ikawa icyayi n’ibindi.

Ibyo bigaragarira ku musaruro mbumbe w’umunyarwanda wavuye ku madolari 50 mu 1960, ugera ku madolari 132 mu 1975 no ku madolari 223 mu 1980.

Kuva icyo gihe ibijyanye no gutwara abantu n’ibintu mu modoka n’ibinyabiziga byariyongereye, ibinyabiziga birushaho kuba byinshi.

Guhera mu 1964, imodoka mu Rwanda zavuye ku 1400 zigera ku 17 900 mu 1982. Hatangiye gushingwa ibigo bishinzwe gutwara abantu n’ibintu mu gihugu, nk’aho kugeza mu 1973, sosiyete Régie des Transports Publics (R.T.P.) yaje guhinduka ONATRACOM ariyo yari ifite isoko ryo gutwara abantu n’ibintu mu gihugu. Kubera ubuke bw’imodoka no kutagera hose mu gihugu, uburyo bwo kugenda n’amaguru bwakomeje gukoreshwa cyane ndetse no kwikorera ku mutwe.

Raporo igaragaza ko nubwo RTP yahindutse ONATRACOM ariyo yari ishinzwe gutwara abantu, imodoka z’amakamyo nazo zari zemerewe gutwara abantu kuko tagisi zitari zihagije. Nyuma abantu bigenga baje kwemererwa kugura tagisi bakazijyana mu muhanda nk’abigenga.

Nibura mu 1979, ku munsi mu Rwanda imodoka zatwaraga abagenzi 33 793 barimo abasaga 3300 (11%) batwarwaga n’imodoka z’abikorera ku giti cyabo.

Uko imodoka zagiye ziyongera mu Rwanda guhera mu 1930 kugeza mu 2010

Mu 1978, uruhare rwo gutwara abantu n’ibintu ku musaruro mbumbe w’igihugu rwari 1.2 %, bivuze ko abaturage benshi bari bagikoresha uburyo bwa kera bwo gukoresha amaguru n’umutwe mu bwikorezi no mu ngendo. Urwo ruhare rwarazamutse rugera kuri 2.1 % mu mwaka wa 1980.

Mu 1982, mu Rwanda habarizwaga imodoka zitwara abantu mu buryo bwa rusange zisaga 4800, na moto zisaga gato 3000.

Imodoka nyinshi, imihanda myinshi nyuma ya Jenoside

Nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yakomeje kongera ibikorwa remezo bigamije guteza imbere urwego rwo gutwara abantu n’ibintu, dore ko byinshi byari byarasenyutse, ari imodoka zarasahuwe, zarangijwe, ba nyirazo barishwe cyangwa se barahunze.

Imbaraga nyinshi zashyizwe mu kubaka imihanda mishya, gukora neza iyari ihari no gushyira kaburimbo mu mihanda mishya.

Kugeza mu 2018, U Rwanda rwari rufite imihanda ireshya n’ibilometero ibihumbi 38 birenga, irimo iya kaburimbo irenga ibilometero 2000 kandi imyinshi muri yo yubatswe nyuma ya Jenoside.

Havuguruwe n’imihanda yari isanzwe nk’uwa Kigali-Huye-Akanyaru, Muhanga-Karongi, Kigali-Kayonza, uwa Kagitumba-Rusumo, Kigali-Musanze-Rubavu n’indi.

Hubatswe kandi imihanda irenga ibiri ihuza u Rwanda n’ibihugu birukikije kugira ngo abaturage barusheho kugenderanirana mu bwisanzure. Nka Uganda hubatswe imihanda ya Kagitumba, uwa Kigali-Gatuna n’uwa Cyanika; ku ruhande rwa Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo hubatswe umuhanda wa Rusizi n’uwa Kigali-Rubavu; Tanzania hubatswe umuhanda wa Rusumo-Kayonza usanga uwa Kigali-Kayonza wavuguruwe mu myaka ishize mu gihe ku Burundi hubatswe umuhanda uva Kicukiro werekeza i Nemba.

Imihanda ihuza ibice bitandukanye by’igihugu nayo yashyizwemo imbaraga nk’umuhanda Nyagatare-Rukomo-Base utuma imodoka zose ziva muri Uganda zishaka kujya muri RDC zitanyura i Kigali, umuhanda uhuza Ngoma na Nyanza, Umuhanda wa Kivu Belt uhuza Rubavu na Rusizi n’indi.

Kwiyongera kw’ibikorwa remezo by’imihanda byatumye n’abatunze ibinyabiziga biyongera. Mu 2011 Ikigo cy’Imisoro n’Amahoro cyatangaje ko mu Rwanda habarirwaga imodoka 50 661 na moto zigera ku 40000.

Mu 2018, icyo kigo cyatangaje ko uwo mwaka wonyine mu Rwanda hinjiye imodoka nshya 7055, zivuye ku modoka 7000 zari zinjijwe mu 2017. Muri uwo mwaka kandi hinjijwe moto 10 576.

Nubwo umubare w’ibinyabiziga wiyongera ariko, leta irashaka kugabanya umubare w’abantu batunga imodoka zabo bwite, hakavugururwa urwego rwo gutwara abantu mu buryo bwa rusange. Bigamije guca umuvundo, kwangiza ikirere no guteza imbere ubukungu.

Amafoto agaragaza Umujyi wa Kigali mu myaka yo hambere

Abanyarwanda bashagaye imodoka zari zitwaye igikomangoma Charles w'u Bubiligi ubwo yasuraga u Rwanda muri Nyakanga 1947
Imodoka zari zitwaye igikomangoma Charles w'u Bubiligi aha zari zigeze i Nyanza zigana ku ngoro y'Umwami Rudahigwa
Umuhanda uciye imbere ya Serena ni uko wari umeze mu myaka ya za 60. Ni wo wa mbere wubatswe muri uyu Mujyi
Isoko ryo mu Mujyi wa Kigali mu myaka ya 60 naryo ni uku ryari rimeze. Hakurya ni Kimisagara itaraturwa n'umuntu n'umwe
Mu Kiyovu ni uku hari hameze...nta nzu washoboraga kuhabona n'imwe
Mu Mujyi rwagati kuri Ecole Belge mu nzira werekeza kuri CHUK ni uku hari hameze
Kimihurura y'ubu n'iyo muri iyi myaka nta huriro na rito. Hamwe ni imiturirwa ahandi hari ibihuru
I Mburabuturo ahari icyicaro cya Kaminuza y'u Rwanda, icyo gihe wari umusozi wambaye ubusa
Umwami Kigeli Ndahindurwa yimye mu Rwanda imodoka zimaze kuba nyinshi
Imihanda yari ikibazo mu bihe bya mbere imodoka zigera muri Afurika
Imodoka za mbere zigera mu Rwanda, benshi barazitangariye
Ifoto yo hejuru: Ni inyubako ya mbere Kiliziya ya Sainte Famille iyo munsi ni urugo Abapadiri bayo babagamo
Ifoto yafashwe mu 1918 igaragaza kwa Richard Kandt
Ifoto igaragaza umujyi wa Kigali mu myaka ya 1970, witegeye ibice bya Kinyinya
Ahubatse isoko rya Kigali kuri ubu mu mujyi rwagati, ni uko hari hameze mu 1960
Mu myaka ishyira 1980, umujyi wa Kigali wari utuwe cyane
Aha ni hafi ya Paruwasi Ste Famille mu Mujyi wa Kigali mu myaka ishyira 1990
Mu myaka ya 1980 benshi bari bagikoresha kugenda n'amaguru no kwikorera imitwaro ku mutwe
Ibikorwa by'ubucuruzi mu mujyi wa Kigali mu myaka ya 1980, byatumaga abantu benshi bagana umujyi, abatunze imodoka batangiye kwiyongera
Mu mujyi wa Kigali nubwo mu 1980 imodoka zari zimaze kuba nyinshi, ntabwo zari zihagije
Mu 1990, aha ni mu mujyi rwagati hafi y'ahubatse T2000 ubu
Ubucuruzi bwari butangiye gukomera mu mujyi rwagati, bikoroshya urujya n'uruza

Nyuma jenoside imihanda n’imodoka byariyongereye

Uyu ni umuhanda mushya uva kuri Base mu karere ka Rulindo ukomeza mu karere ka Gicumbi
Uyu muhanda uca ku Karere ka Gasabo ugakomereza kuri Airtel na Sports View Hotel umaze kuba nyabagendwa
Imihanda irimo kaburimbo ikomeje kubakwa haba mu mijyi no mu byaro byo mu Rwanda
Ibikorwa remezo birimo kubaka gare zitandukanye mu gihugu byashyizwemo imbaraga mu myaka 26 ishize
Buri mwaka kuri ubu mu Rwanda hinjizwa imodoka nshya zisaga ibihumbi birindwi
Kubera ubwinshi bw'ibinyabiziga, Leta y'u Rwanda iri mu ngamba zo kugabanya abatunze ibinyabiziga ku giti cyabo, hakayobokwa ibinyabiziga bya rusange
Moto ni bumwe mu bwoko bw'ibinyabiziga bikomeje kwiyongera mu Rwanda kandi byifashishwa mu gutwara abantu n'ibintu
Kuri ubu mu Rwanda hari uburyo bunoze bwo gutwara abantu n'ibintu mu byerekezo byose by'igihugu

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

AMATEGEKO AGENGA IYANDIKA RY'IGITEKEREZO CYAWE
Kwamamaza

Special pages
. . . . . .