Uko gushwana k’u Rwanda n’u Burundi byabaye intandaro yo kuvuka kwa BNR

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 13 Kanama 2020 saa 07:22
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Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda (BNR) niyo banki yatangijwe bwa mbere mu Rwanda, nyuma y’imyaka ibiri gusa rubonye ubwigenge, itangizwa igamije gufasha igihugu mu iterambere no mu micungire ya politiki yacyo y’ifaranga.

Icyakora igitangaje, ni uko u Rwanda rubona ubwigenge BNR itari mu mishinga yarwo, yabayeho ari amahitamo ya kabiri nyuma yo gushwana n’u Burundi ibihugu byombi bipfa banki byari bihuriyeho, bikaba ngombwa ko buri gihugu kijya gushinga banki yacyo.

Ubwo u Rwanda rwari rumaze guhabwa u Bubiligi nk’indagizo, u Rwanda rwasigaye rugengwa na Banki ya Congo Mbiligi yari ishinzwe kugenzura politiki y’ifaranga muri Congo, u Rwanda n’u Burundi. Icyo gihe u Rwanda rwari rukibarizwa muri teritwari ngari ya Ruanda-Urundi.

Tariki 30 Kamena 1960, Congo yabimburiye u Rwanda n’u Burundi kubona ubwigenge, biba ngombwa ko igira imikorere itandukanye n’iy’ibyo bihugu byombi kuko byo byari bikiri mu ndagizo, birebererwa n’u Bubiligi.

Tariki 21 Kamena 196o hashyizweho Banque d’emission du Rwanda et du Burundi (BERB) ihabwa icyicaro Bujumbura, ikagira n’ishami i Kigali.

Mu nshingano za Banki hari harimo gucunga politiki y’ifaranga ry’u Rwanda n’u Burundi, kugenzura ibijyanye n’ivunjisha n’amadovize aturuka hanze, gutanga no gukurikirana itangwa ry’ibyangombwa by’ibyinjira mu gihugu, kugenzura banki zigenga no gutanga ubujyanama mu by’imari ku bihugu biyigize, gutanga inguzanyo kuri Guverinoma n’ibindi.

Nubwo iyo Banki yatangijwe, inama ziyishyiraho mu buryo bwemewe n’amategeko zabaye guhera tariki 9 kugeza tariki 19 Mata 1962, i Addis Abeba muri Ethiopia ku buhuza bwa Komisiyo y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye yari ishinzwe Ruanda-Urundi.

BERB yahawe ububasha bwo gutanga inguzanyo kuri za Guverinoma n’ibigo by’imari mu Rwanda n’u Burundi. Iyo banki ntabwo yari yemerewe kurenza miliyoni 500 z’amafaranga yakoreshwaga muri ibyo bihugu mu gihe u Rwanda n’u Burundi bigiye kwakira hamwe inguzanyo ku mishinga bihuriyeho na miliyoni 250 mu gihe ari guverinoma imwe igiye gusaba inguzanyo.

Umwuka watangiye kuba mubi, BERB iraseswa

Raporo yakozwe mu 1962 na International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, ivuga ko ukurikije ibyo ibyo bihugu byari bikeneye, bitahuraga n’amikoro yabyo ku buryo byagannye bwangu BERB ngo ibigoboke.

Ibyo kandi byaterwaga n’ibindi bibazo birimo kugwa kw’Ibiciro by’ibikomoka k’ubuhinzi no ku mabuye y’agaciro ku buryo mu bihugu byombi ikinyuranyo cy’ibyoherezwaga hanze n’ibyavagayo byari bihabanye cyane.

Kubera gutinya kumara amadovize, BERB yategetse ko mu gihe hagiye kubaho gutumiza ibicuruzwa hanze, izajya ibanza gusuzuma niba ibigiye gutumizwa biri mu byangombwa nkenerwa. Ibyahabwaga agaciro cyane ni nk’ibikoresho byo kwifashisha mu buzima bwa buri munsi cyangwa ibiribwa abaturage bakeneye.

Mu gihe hagiye kugurwa ibiri ku rutonde rw’ibyangombwa nkenerwa, ifaranga rya Ruanda-Urundi (FRU) ryanganyaga agaciro n’ifaranga ry’u Bubiligi ariko byaba ari ukugura ibindi bicuruzwa bidakenewe cyane, agaciro ka FRU kakaba hasi ugerernayije n’agaciro k’ifaranga ry’u Bubiligi (1FB=1.66 FRU).

Hari abacuruzi babizamukiyemo, bakajya kurangura ibyitwa ko bikenewe cyane mu gihugu ariko babihageza bagashyiraho ibiciro bihanitse, cyangwa se bagakora amanyanga bajya kugura ibyemewe bakazanamo n’ibitemewe.

Umujyi wa Bujumbura niwo wari urimo ibikorwa remezo byinshi mu myaka ya za 1960 ubwo u Rwanda n'u Burundi byari bikiri mu maboko y'u Bubiligi

Ibiciro by’ibicuruzwa mu Rwanda byaruriye cyane ku buryo hati ya 1960 na 1962 byiyongereye ku kigero kiri hagati ya 140 % na 150 %. Hagati ya 1963 na 1964, ibiciro byiyongereye hagati ya 150 % na 300 % ku buryo abaturage cyane cyane abaciriritse batari bakibasha kubyigondera, nkuko bigaragara muri raporo ya International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

Kubera ko umurwa mukuru wa Teritwari ya Ruanda-Urundi yari Bujumbura, byatumye ibikorwa remezo byinshi bikomeye nk’inzu z’ubucuruzi, amahoteli n’ibindi byari byarubatswe i Bujumbura.

Na nyuma y’ubwigenge mu 1962, u Burundi bwakomeje kugira ibikorwa remezo byinshi kurusha u Rwanda. Nk’igihugu cyari kirimo ibikorwa remezo byinshi bikurura ba mukerarugendo no kuba ariho hazaga abanyaburayi benshi, ntabwo cyumvaga uburyo kiringanizwa n’u Rwanda, rufite ibikorwa remezo bike mu gihe bigiye kwaka inguzanyo muri BERB.

Hagati y’u Rwanda n’u Burundi kandi ntabwo habagamo gasutamo, igicuruzwa cyinjiriraga mu Rwanda, cyabaga cyemerewe gucuruzwa mu Burundi nta yindi misoro, n’ikivuye mu Burundi bikaba uko. Ibyo byababaje u Burundi bwabonaga buryamirwa n’u Rwanda, kuko ku mipaka yabwo ariho hanyuraga ibicuruzwa byinshi.

Ku rundi ruhande ariko, u Rwanda rwaje kurakazwa n’uburyo BERB yari ifite icyicaro i Bujumbura, yajya gutanga inguzanyo ikegamira ku Burundi na sosiyete zabwo kurusha izo mu Rwanda.

Igitabo ‘Toute ma vie pour vous, mes frères’ cyanditswe na Paternostre de la Mairieu Baudouin, avugamo ko u Rwanda rwaje gusanga kuba inzego nyinshi ziri gushyirwa i Bujumbura gusa bishobora kuzagira ingaruka ku iterambere ryarwo.

U Rwanda kandi ngo rwababazwaga n’uburyo iyo BERB yabaga yatanze inguzanyo ku Burundi na sosiyete zabwo, hatatangwaga impamvu, bigakorwa gutyo n’igihe u Rwanda rwimwe inguzanyo.

U Burundi kandi muri iyo minsi ntibwari bubanye neza n’u Rwanda kubera ibitero byabaye mu 1963 bigabwe n’Impunzi z’abanyarwanda bari barahungiye i Burundi. Perezida Kayibanda yumvaga ko ubwami bw’u Burundi bushyigikiye abashaka kumuhirika , niko kwihimura ibicuruzwa byazaga mu Rwanda binyuze i Burundi atangira kubivana mu muhora wa ruguru, ni ukuvuga Kampala, Nairobi na Mombasa.

Hateguwe ibiganiro bihagarikiwe n’Umuryango w’Abibumbye kugira ngo ibihugu byombi bikemure icyo kibazo ariko biba iby’ubusa.

Ibyo bihugu byaje gusanga umwanzuro ukwiriye ari uko BERB iseswa, buri gihugu kikagira banki yacyo. U Rwanda narwo rwabyujmvise vuba rutangira imyiteguro kugira ngo rushyireho banki yarwo.

Tariki ya 1 Mutarama 1964 nibwo ibihugu byombi byatandukanye mu by’ubukungu, buri cyose kigira Banki yacyo na gasutamo. Agatabo ka BNR ko mu 1964 ((BNR handbook, 1964) kavuga ko Banki nkuru y’u Rwanda yashyizweho tariki 24 Mata 1964, itangira imirimo tariki 19 Gicurasi 1964.

Uwo munsi hashyizweho ifaranga ry’u Rwanda risumbura irya Rwanda –Urundi. Sosiyete nyinshi zari zifite icyicaro i Bujumbura byabaye ngombwa ko zigira amashami i Kigali kugira bizorohere gukomeza gukorera mu Rwanda.

Kugeza mu 1964 ubwo BERB yaseswaga yari imaze gutanga miliyoni 575, zirimo miliyoni 400 zatswe na Guverinoma mu gihe andi yatswe n’ibigo byigenga.

BNR yashinzwe mu 1964 nyuma y'uko u Rwanda rwivanye muri banki yaruhuzaga n'u Burundi
Inoti y'ijana yakoreshwaga ubwo u Rwanda n'u Burundi byari bihuriye muri BERB
Iyi ni inoti y'amafaranga 20 yatanzwe na Banque d'emission du Rwanda et du Burundi

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