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Amashuri yafunzwe, icyerekezo cya TVET, ruswa, kwita ku barimu n’ibindi...Ikiganiro cyihariye na Minisitiri Irere

Yanditswe na Philbert Girinema
Kuya 21 Ukuboza 2020 saa 10:08
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Imyuga n’Ubumenyingiro ni icyiciro gihanzwe amaso n’u Rwanda mu cyerekezo gishya cyo kugira uburezi bubashisha umunyeshuri guhanga udushya no kwiga amasomo akenewe ku isoko ry’umurimo anahesha abayize akazi ku buryo bworoshye aho kumara imyaka n’imyaniko birirwana amabaruwa agasaba.

Uru rwego rwashyizwemo ingufu nyinshi na Guverinoma y’u Rwanda, bigeza n’aho muri Gashyantare uyu mwaka hashyizweho Umunyamabanga wa Leta wihariye ushinzwe Amashuri y’Imyuga n’Ubumenyingiro, Irere Claudette.

Irere yinjiye muri Guverinoma nyuma y’imyaka ibiri n’amezi 11 ari muri Minisiteri y’Ikoranabuhanga na Inovasiyo aho yari Umuyobozi Mukuru ushinzwe Ikoranabuhanga, ICT.

Yize Ubumenyi mu bya Mudasobwa (Computer Science) muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, akomereza muri Oklahoma Christian University aho yakuye Impamyabumenyi y’Icyiciro cya Gatatu cya Kaminuza mu bijyanye na mudasobwa n’ubundi (Computer Engineering).

Yigeze kuyobora KLab, ikigo gifatwa nk’igicumbi cy’urubyiruko rw’u Rwanda mu kwihugura mu ikoranabuhanga, yabaye Umuyobozi n’umwe mu batangije FabLab ndetse yanakoze mu zindi nzego hose mu bijyanye n’ikoranabuhanga.

Yagiranye ikiganiro cyihariye na IGIHE, agaruka ku nshingano nshya nka Minisitiri ufite mu nshingano iterambere ry’amasomo y’ubumenyingiro mu Rwanda.

Ni ikiganiro kigaruka ku bimaze gukorwa muri iyi ngeri, ibyitezwe, uburyo bwo kwita ku barimu bigisha amasomo y’ubumenyingiro, imishinga yihariye yakozwe n’abanyeshuri bayasoje n’uburyo bwo kuvumbura impano z’abana bakiri bato mu bijyanye n’ubumenyingiro.

Irere Claudette yinjiye muri Guverinoma nyuma y’imyaka ibiri n’amezi 11 ari muri Minisiteri y’Ikoranabuhanga na Inovasiyo aho yari Umuyobozi Mukuru ushinzwe Ikoranabuhanga, ICT

IGIHE: Umaze amezi 10 uri Umunyamabanga wa Leta muri Minisiteri y’Uburezi ushinzwe Ikoranabuhanga, Imyuga n’Ubumenyingiro; mwasanze uru rwego ruhagaze gute?

Irere: Hari byinshi nshima nasanze byarakozwe, kubona amashuri yigisha ibya TVET yari ahari, umubare wayo ukomeza kugenda wiyongera. Mu gihe kigera nko ku myaka 10, yavuye ku mashuri 62 yitwaga CFJ (Centre de Formation des Jeunes) agera ku mashuri 365.

Muri ayo, umubare munini ni amashuri yigenga, agera ku 174 ni amashuri ya leta cyangwa aterwa inkunga na leta. Muri ayo kandi, muri iyo myaka icumi, yavuye ku kwiga imyuga y’akanya gato, ahubwo bigenda bizamuka ku buryo umuntu ashobora kwiga ubumenyingiro mu cyiciro cya kabiri cy’amashuri yisumbuye.

Ikindi mbona cyakozwe cy’ingenzi ni uko hashyizweho na politiki igena icyerekezo cya TVET ku buryo yaba Minisiteri, abafatanyabikorwa ari ibintu bahaye imbaraga.

IGIHE: Nta byo kwitabwaho by’umwihariko mwasanze?

Irere: Haracyarimo akazi gakomeye. Mu bugenzuzi duherutse gukora tureba ese amashuri yacu ahagaze ate, byabaye ngombwa ko dufunga amashuri 15 kubera ikibazo cy’ireme ry’uburezi.

Hari aho ugenda ugasanga aho bakorera ntabwo hameze neza, nta bikoresho bihagije bafite, ndetse n’iby’ibanze nta bihari.

Ejo bundi mu bugenzuzi twakoze, atari ayo 15, hari andi atanu yo ubwayo yifungiye kubera ko yabonaga ibyo turi kubasaba badashobora kongera kubyemeza. Turacyafite urugendo rukomeye kugira ngo amashuri ya TVET tuyageze ku rwego rushimishije dushaka.

Ikindi abanyeshuri barangiza Tronc Commun bakajya kwiga TVET baracyari bake. Icyerekezo cy’igihugu ni uko abanyeshuri barangiza muri Tronc Commun mu myaka itatu (mu 2024) bagomba kuba bageze kuri 60%. Kugira ngo tuzahagere biradusaba imbaraga zikomeye, bikajyana no kubongerera ubushobozi no kwigirira icyizere.

IGIHE: Ayo mashuri yafunzwe, yafunzwe ryari, ubugenzuzi bwakozwe ryari?

Irere: Ubugenzuzi twabukoze mu kwezi kwa Munani kugeza mu kwa Cyenda. Aha ho byari n’ingenzi, kuko nyuma ya Guma mu Rugo, tuzi ko hari amashuri menshi yari yagizweho ingaruka n’ibibazo bya Guma mu Rugo, turavuga tuti reka noneho muri iki gihe tutabwira abanyeshuri ngo musubire ku ishuri tutigeze tunareba ngo ese amashuri yacu ahagaze ate.

N’ayo twaretse si uko yujuje ibyo twifuza 100% ariko hari ibyo umuntu atashoboraga kwihanganira, cyane cyane ibijyanye n’ireme ry’uburezi. Ntabwo ushobora kwigisha ubumenyingiro utagira workshop, ese irimo ibiki, ntabwo tugusabye ngo ugire byose ariko hari ibyo tugusaba wakagombye kuba ufite hanyuma hagakurikiraho abarimu. Ese barabihuguriwe, bafite izihe mpamyabushobozi.

Ni muri urwo rwego twasanze amashuri ari hirya no hino mu gihugu tudashobora kubeshya Abanyarwanda ngo tubabwire ngo nimwigiremo aha, kandi natwe twabonye ikibazo, hanyuma duhitamo kuyahagarika.

Icyo gihe twabwiye amashuri yose ngo mwongere musabe, hanyuma ayasabye ni yo twagiye gusura tugakorera ubugenzuzi.

Irere Claudette yavuze ko icyerekezo cy'igihugu ari uko abanyeshuri barangiza Tronc Commun bakajya kwiga TVET bagera kuri 60% bitarenze mu 2024

IGIHE: Ni iki kiri gukorwa mu gufasha n’ayo mashuri asigaye ku buryo n’ejo bundi nayo tutazumva ngo yafunze?

Irere: Hari amashuri ya leta, amashuri afashwa na leta n’amashuri yigenga. Ayigenga rero abona ko byatangiye kugaragara ko imbaraga zitakiri nyinshi, yujuje ibisabwa, wenda aho ishuri riri ni ahabo ku buryo babyerekana, basaba leta ikabafasha.

Nakwizeza ko amashuri yigenga azagaragaza ubushobozi buke ariko afite iby’ingenzi, leta ntabwo izareka kuyafasha.

IGIHE: Ubu imibare iheruka igaragaza ko abo banyeshuri bari bageze kuri 46,4%, ni iki kiri gukorwa ku buryo intego ya 60% izagerwaho mu 2024?

Irere: Hari icyizere dufite. Mu mwaka w’amashuri uyu turimo, twari dufite amashuri 365, urabizi ko turi kubaka andi mashuri mu gihugu hose, haziyongeraho 81 mashya ya TVET, ikindi hari andi arindwi ari kubakwa ku mipaka, hari n’andi ari guteganywa mu bindi byiciro bigiye kuza.

IGIHE: Mubona mute umusanzu utangwa n’abanyeshuri barangiza muri TVET?

Irere: Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe mu mwaka ushize bwatweretse ko 63% by’abanyeshuri barangiza muri aya mashuri, bahita babona imirimo, baba bayihangiye, baba bayihawe, mu gihe kitarenze amezi atandatu.

Impamvu ni uko ibyo biga, umuntu ashobora kubibona, ntabwo ari ba bandi bandika basaba akazi. Ikindi kuko bakunda kwimenyereza umurimo bakiri mu ishuri, abenshi bajya kurangiza abakoresha barababonye ku buryo bahita babakomezanya.

Nko muri ibi bintu byo kubaka amashuri, abari kureberera abubaka, muzasanga abenshi ari abarangije muri TVET, hirya no hino barakenewe, ahubwo ikibazo ni uko tudashyiraho benshi.

Ikindi hari uburyo ubona imyuga imwe n’imwe igenda itera imbere kubera aya mashuri. Gusa haracyari ikibazo mu mubare w’abihangira imirimo, bivuze ko mu buryo twigisha twagakwiye no gushyira imbagara mu kwihangira imirimo.

IGIHE: Ubwo ntabwo ari ukubera ikibazo cy’ubushobozi?

Irere: Bamwe barabitubwira. Ariko nk’abajya gufata inguzanyo muri BDF, aho aba agomba kwishyura 50% hanyuma andi 50% akaba impano ya leta nabyo usanga abanyeshuri bize mu myuga batabikora.

Yego ubushobozi ni ikibazo cyugarije urubyiruko muri rusange ariko n’aho baborohereza usanga batabijyamo, urasanga abenshi bashaka gukoreshwa aho kwihangira imirimo.

IGIHE: Hari ingero z’ibikorwa by’abanyeshuri bize Ubumenyingiro mwasuye mukabona koko umusaruro w’aya mashuri?

Irere: Haracyari kare ko umuntu yahita abibona, ariko natanga urugero ku kintu mbona kimaze gufata intera. Mu bintu byo gupima ubutaka aho bagiye kubaka amagorofa, naje gusanga iyo serivisi iyo idatanzwe na IPRC Kigali, itangwa n’abanyeshuri cyangwa abarimu bahoze bahakora. Usanga aribo bayizi.

Bitugaragariza ko nta wundi muntu wari ushoboye kubikora, abenshi bazanaga ibigo byo mu mahanga kugira ngo bipime ubutaka.

Hari ibindi bintu bishya umuntu abona. Ejo bundi igihugu gifata gahunda yo gutangiza ibi bigo by’amarerero y’abana, ECD, byanzuwe ko kugira ngo urigire, hari ibikinisho umwana akinisha bifite uburyo bikozwe bidasanzwe biri ku isoko.

Icyo gihe abantu ba mbere babikoze ni abanyeshuri bo muri IPRC, usanga n’undi ubikeneye ariho ajya. Izi ni ingero nguhaye ariko usuye IPRC wasanga hari ibindi bazana.

Nk’ubu turi kuganira na Minisiteri ishinzwe Ibikorwa by’Ubutabazi, ku bijyanye n’imirindankuba, turabwira Abanyarwanda ko inkuba ari ikibazo mu bice bimwe na bimwe by’igihugu, tukanabasaba ko nibura buri wese agerageza agashyira umurindankuba ku nzu ye, ariko se iyo umubwiye ngo wushyireho urambwira ngo urawukura he?

Abanyeshuri bacu rero barimo kuyikora. Nimara kunyura mu buziranenge nk’abaturage bibumbiye mu makoperative bashobora kuyibona.

Ejo bundi Isi yose ihangayikishijwe n’uburyo umuntu urwaye ashobora kubona umwuka, abanyeshuri bo muri IPRC hamwe n’abarimu bishyize hamwe bagira ibyo bakora, babiganiraho na RBC, twizera ko mu minsi itaha nibigenda neza bizatangira gukoreshwa.

Abanyeshuri bo mu Ishuri rikuru ryigisha Imyuga n'Ubumenyingiro mu Ntara y'Amajyepfo, IPRC South, bakoresha imashini igezweho mu buhinzi

IGIHE: Iyo murebye umubare munini w’abanyeshuri biga ubumenyingiro, ni ayahe masomo bibandaho?

Irere: Abenshi usanga bajya kwiga ibintu by’ubwubatsi, ariko nabyo harimo byinshi ntabwo ari ugushyira itafari ku rindi. Gusa iyo unarebye n’igihugu muri rusange, ubwubatsi ni ikintu gishyizwe imbere, kandi ni byo koko ni igihugu kiri mu nzira y’amajyambere, ugasanga urubyiruko cyane ni byo bashatse kujyamo kuko ni byo bihita bibaha akazi.

Iyo ugiye mu mashuri yo hasi naho usanga umwuga w’ubwubatsi niwo uje imbere, ndetse n’umwuga w’ubudozi urimo kwitabirwa cyane kuko wo ntabwo umuntu awiga igihe kirekire.

Twaranavuze tuti ni gute aba bantu twabongerera ubushobozi, bakava ku byo kudoda ibi tubona umuntu afite icyarahani imbere y’umuryango ahubwo tugakoramo Fashion na Design ikomeye.

Hari andi masomo turi gutegura ku buryo umuntu azazamuka, kandi ntibigarukire ku myenda, bikagera ku mitako, inkweto n’ibindi.

IGIHE: Mubona hari ubumenyi budatangirwa mu Rwanda?

Irere: Nibyo hari ubumenyi bwinshi tutarageraho. Nk’ababaji, hari ugukoresha ikoranabuhanga, aho Isi igeze abantu basigaye bakoresha 3D, ukabanza ukabishyira mu mashini ukabireba, ikabyohereza bitanagusabye ko ukoresha imbaraga zawe z’umubiri.

Ikindi aho Isi yerekeza, hari imirimo myinshi izagenda ivaho, ni gute twatangira kwigisha abanyeshuri bacu biga muri Engineering n’ikoranabuhanga, bagatangira kwiga ibijyanye na robot, ibintu tubona neza ko ariho Isi igana, bagakora ibizakoreshwa mu nganda n’ahandi.

Hari n’ibindi byinshi tugenda tubona, ibintu byo gucuruza kuri internet, muri aba banyeshuri bacu bari mu bukorikori busanzwe, ni gute mu byo tubigisha twongeramo kwihangira imirimo, ariko tukongeramo kubicuruza bakoresheje ikoranahanga. Ni gute twinjiza ikoranabuhanga mu bumenyingiro, aho tugeze ku Isi gukoresha imbaraga gusa ntabwo aribyo bikenewe.

IGIHE: Haba hari ubufasha bwihariye buhabwa abarimu ba TVET nk’uko bigenda mu yandi masomo?

Irere: Bimwe mu byo turi gukora, ni ukureba ni gute hejuru y’umwuga azi, ni gute tumwongerera ubumenyi kugira ngo ajye kwigisha. Hashyizweho ikigo cyitwa Rwanda TVET Trainer Institute, umwarimu wese wigisha TVET asabwa kukinyuramo.

Utangiye uyu munsi, uhabwa imyaka ibiri yo kuba wakinyuzemo, ugahabwa n’impamyabushobozi kugira ngo ugire amahirwe yo kuba wakwigisha muri TVET. Ikindi abarimu bo muri TVET icyo tubakeneyeho cyane ni ugushyira mu ngiro.

Turi gushaka kubaha amahirwe yo kuza mu ishuri akigisha, akajya no hanze aho akora agakomeza gukora, kuko twemera ko ubumenyi akura mu ruganda aho akora aribwo butuma yigisha neza. Ni ikintu turi gukoraho uyu munsi.

Icya gatatu ni uko abarimu bose bahabwa amahirwe angana. Mu minsi ishize, byakunze kuvugwaho, bikagaragara ko hari igihe abarimu ba TVET bibagiranye, kuzamurwa mu ntera ntibikorerwe ku gihe, haba hari n’agahimbazamusyi bigatinda.

Mu minsi yashize murabizi ko leta yanzuye ko ku mushahara w’abarimu hiyongeraho 10%, ugasanga rimwe na rimwe abarimu ba TVET barasa n’abasigara inyuma.

Turizera ko iki kibazo kimeze nk’aho hari ubusumbane hagati y’abarimu ba TVET n’abandi kigiye kuba amateka bagafatwa kimwe.

IGIHE: Ubundi ubwo busumbane bwaje gute?

Irere: Hari igihe ikigo cyari gishinzwe TVET byabaye nk’aho gihinduriwe inshingano, ibyo byose bireba abarimu bisa n’aho biburiye aho bibarizwa, ibintu birahungabana.

Gusa Inama y’Abaminisitiri iheruka yashyizeho Umuyobozi w’Ikigo cyitwa Rwanda TVET Board ndetse hakozwe n’amavugurura menshi muri uyu mwaka twemeza ko ikibazo cyabo kigiye kuba amateka.

Abanyeshuri biga muri za IPRC hari aho bamaze kugaragaza ko bateye intambwe mu byo bakora bijyanye n'ubumenyingiro

IGIHE: Ni ukuvuga ko nabo bazabona iriya nyongera ya 10%?

Irere: Ahubwo baratangiye [...] turifuza ko uku kwezi kurangira bose byarangiye. Icyabaye ni uko mu gutangira gutanga aya mafaranga, bahereye kuri lisiti zari zitunganyije, ugasanga n’iz’abarimu bo mu mashuri asanzwe, nabo ntibyakorewe rimwe, bigenda bikorwa hanyuma birangiye batangira na TVET, ubu uturere turenze 10 tumaze kuyabona.

IGIHE: Ikigo Rwanda TVET Board giherutse guhabwa umuyobozi ni uwuhe musaruro cyitezweho?

Irere: Mu nshingano zabo harimo ikijyanye no kongerera ubumenyi abakora muri TVET, ikindi kijyanye n’amasomo, gutegura imfashanyigisho, kuzikurikirana niba ziri gukoreshwa, uburyo zikoreshwa.

Ikindi byagaragaye ko TVET iyo bigeze ku ikoranabuhanga yasigaye inyuma, icyo nacyo cyiyongereye mu nshingano zabo.

IGIHE: Ko WDA yavuyeho, ubu inshingano zayo zo ziri mu kihe kigo?

Irere: WDA yarahagaritswe kubera ko byagaragaye ko inshingano zayo inyinshi zasaga n’aho zibarizwa mu bindi. Urugero yari umugenzuzi w’amashuri ya TVET. Amashuri mato aho kugira ngo dushyireho ikigo kigiye kureberera amashuri mato ya TVET hanyuma niturangiza dushyireho n’ikindi kigiye kugenzura amashuri mato asanzwe, ahubwo twasabye ko hashyirwaho ikigo kimwe kigiye gushingwa ubugenzuzi. Nacyo ikigiye gukurikiraho ni uko hashyirwaho abayobozi kigatangira gukora. Muzakibona cyitwa NESA.

Hazajyamo ibyo gukora ibizamini, ubugenzuzi no kugenzura ireme ry’uburezi. Noneho igice cy’amashuri makuru y’imyuga n’ubumenyingiro, WDA ni yo yakigenzuraga ariko ku rundi ruhande ugasanga dufite na HEC, Higher Education Council, yo ireberera za Kaminuza.

Turavuga tuti reka dufate izi nshingano zari ziri muri WDA tuzongere kuri HEC, hanyuma ireberere amashuri makuru yose yaba ay’imyuga n’ubumenyingiro na kaminuza.

IGIHE: Hashize iminsi havugwa ruswa mu gutanga uburenganzira bwo gukora ku mashuri, iki kibazo mwarakimenye?

Irere: Amakuru twarayumvise kuri amwe mu mashuri ya TVET, amwe yagaragaje ikibazo ku buryo bw’umwihariko, hari ayatwandikiye, turayegera turayaganiriza. Inama twabagira ni imwe: Niba ikibazo cya ruswa kigaragaye, yaba uyisabye yaba uyitanze, twabagiriye inama yo kugana inzego zibishinzwe, bagatangira iperereza bakareba koko uwakoze icyaha akagihanirwa. Kubibwira itangazamakuru turabishima ni byiza ariko kubishyira mu nzego zibishinzwe nacyo ni ikindi.

Mu Rwanda abanyeshuri biga mu myuga n'ubumenyingiro bageze kuri 46,4%

IGIHE: Hari abana bagaragaza ubuhanga mu bintu bitandukanye ariko ntitumenye ubufasha bahawe. Hari uwakoze Radio w’i Rwamagana, hari uw’i Rusizi, hari uwabumbye KCC, abo bana mubafasha iki?

Irere: Ndabazi, ku giti cyanjye ndabazi cyane kandi ndabakurikirana. Nk’uw’i Rwamagana witwa Isaie we ndabyibuka ko nagiye kumwishakira. Icyo gihe ntabwo nakoraga muri Minisiteri y’Uburezi, nakoraga mu y’Ikoranabuhanga, ndamwishakira ndetse ntangira no kumukorera ubuvugizi ku rwego rwanjye kugira ngo ahabwe ibishoboka byose.

Ntimwabimenye ariko yakomeje gukurikiranwa, abantu baramufasha akomeza kwiga, ngira ngo ubu ageze mu wa Gatatu (Tronc Commun). Ndabyibuka ko twamuvanye i Rwamagana iwabo akaza i Kigali akajya akoresha lab yitwa FabLab n’abantu bo muri ICT Chamber bakomeza kumukurikirana.

Uw’i Rusizi ageze mu mwaka wa gatatu Tronc Commun, icyo tumuteganyiriza, ni ukureba nawurangiza, igikurikiyeho ni gute leta iri bumufate ikamufasha ku buryo azamura impano ye. Twabiganiriyeho n’abayobozi b’Akarere ka Rusizi, ubu basubiye ku ishuri, turizera ko azatsinda neza ndetse ni nacyo tumusaba ubundi ibindi mukazabitubaza.

Ariko muri rusange birakwiriye ko hashyirwaho porogaramu ishakisha abana nka bariya kuko nta yihari, iyo itangazamakuru ritabatweretse ntabwo tubamenya. Muri Minisiteri iki ni ikintu dukomeza kuganiraho, tuzakorana na Minisiteri y’Ikoranabuhanga kuko usanga baba barifitemo ubumenyi. Turacyabikoraho.

IGIHE: Akabazo k’amatsiko, iyo utaza kwiga ibijyanye n’ubumenyi mu bya mudasobwa, ukiga nk’amasomo ya TVET, wari kwiga iki?

Irere: Ntakubeshye, mbere y’uko ntangira gukora muri leta, nakoraga muri PSF muri ICT Chamber. Nyobora KLab nyuma dutangira FabLab, navuga ko tukimara kuyitangira aribwo nabonye ko ngize inyota y’ibijyanye n’ibintu byo gukora, gukora ikintu ugahita ukibona kurenza ibya computer nari narize. Gusa ubumenyi nari naravanye muri Computer Science nibwo bwamfashije, gusa n’ubundi ubwo bumenyi urabukeneye kugira ngo ubashe gukora ibirenzeho.

Navuga rero ko n’ubundi nari gukomeza nkiga ibyo nize, nkiga ibya Software Engineering ariko ndi muri FabLab ibi bintu narabikunze ku rundi rwego. Kandi icyo gihe tukiyifungura, abanyeshuri benshi twakiriye ni abari bavuye muri TVET cyane cyane mu mashuri yisumbuye bituma ngira indi shusho kuri TVET kuko wabonaga abo bana aribo babyumva.

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