Impamvu abagororwa bo mu Rwanda bakwiriye kwemererwa gusurwa n’abo bashakanye bagatera akabariro

Yanditswe na Philbert Girinema
Kuya 12 Ukwakira 2020 saa 05:19
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Mu Rwanda ntabwo byemewe, ariko mu bihugu bitandukanye ku Isi, abagororwa bemererwa kuba basurwa mu buryo bwihariye, by’umwihariko bakabonana n’abo bashakanye mu buryo bwemewe n’amategeko ku buryo bashobora no gukora imibonano mpuzabitsina.

Urugero nko muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, muri Leta 50 zigize iki gihugu, enye zemerera abagororwa kuba basurwa n’abo bashakanye muri ubu buryo, ibizwi mu nka “Conjugal visit / visite conjugale”. Izo ni California, Connecticut, New York na Washington.

Byarakorwaga no muri New Mexico ariko biza guhagarikwa nyuma y’aho byaje kugaragara ko umwe mu bagororwa yaciye mu rihumye abashinzwe umutekano wa gereza, akabyara abana bane ku bagore batandukanye mu gihe yari afunze.

Mu bihugu abagororwa bemererwa guhura n’abo bashakanye, usanga harashyizweho gahunda yitwa iyo guhuza imiryango (Family Reunion Program, FRP), dore ko uyu mwihariko mu gusurwa ari nacyo uba ugendereye.

Tukiri muri Amerika, binyuze muri FRP, umugororwa ashobora gusurwa n’uwo bashakanye mu buryo bwemewe n’amategeko cyangwa abana be. Nk’ufite umuhungu cyangwa umukobwa w’inshuti ntabwo aba yemerewe kumusura muri ubu buryo bwihariye, ariko usanga hari aho bamwe babeshya ko abo bakobwa cyangwa abasore ari bashiki babo cyangwa se abandi bantu ba hafi mu miryango ariko iyo bitahuwe, yamburwa ubwo burenganzira.

Iyo umuntu yemerewe gusurwa muri ubu buryo bwihariye, aba ashobora gukorana imibonano mpuzabitsina n’uwo bashakanye, gusa ahenshi usanga uyu mwanya wihariye usobanurwa nk’umwanya w’umuryango, aho uwasuwe aganira n’uwamusuye ahantu badacunzwe nk’uko gusurwa bisanzwe bigenda, ahubwo bari ahantu bisanzuye ku buryo baba bameze nko mu rugo.

Uku gusurwa kuba kugamije kandi ko abagororwa bubahiriza amategeko ya gereza, bakagira imyitwarire myiza ku buryo batiheba.

Mu Rwanda byifashe bite?

Amategeko y’u Rwanda ntabwo yemerera abagororwa kuba basurwa muri ubu buryo bwihariye. Ingingo ya 40 mu Itegeko ryo mu 2010 rishyiraho Urwego rw’Igihugu rushinzwe Imfungwa n’Abagororwa (RCS) igena uko gusurwa bikorwa.

Isobanura ko umuntu ufunzwe afite uburenganzira bwo gusurwa ku minsi n’amasaha mu buryo buteganywa mu mategeko ngengamikorere ya gereza, kandi ahererekanya n’abamusura amakuru ku mugaragaro acunzwe n’umucungagereza cyangwa undi mukozi wa gereza ubifitiye ububasha.

Ibi bitandukanye n’ubu buryo bwo gusura bwihariye bukoreshwa ahandi. Gusa ariko nubwo bimeze bitya, nk’abagororwa mpuzamahanga bafungiwe mu Rwanda, bo ubu burenganzira barabuhabwa, ku buryo babonana n’abagore babo.

Umuvugizi wa RCS, Pelly Gakwaya Uwera, yabwiye IGIHE ko gusurwa muri ubwo buryo byemerewe gusa ku mfungwa mpuzamahanga ziri mu Rwanda nk’izo muri Sierra Leone, kuko mu masezerano yasinywe zijya kuhazanwa, iyo ngingo yarimo.

Ati “Bo birateganyije mu masezerano mpuzamahanga ashyiraho ko bafungirwa hano, niyo mpamvu bo tubemerera guhura n’abagore babo iyo baje. Ariko ku banyarwanda bo ntabwo byashoboka kuko ntabwo biri mu mategeko yacu.”

Mu Rwanda hafungiwe abanya-Sierra Leone batanu, abagore babo bemerewe kubasura inshuro imwe mu mwaka, bakamara mu Rwanda ukwezi. Muri uko kwezi baba bemerewe kwirirwana n’abagabo babo kuri gereza kuko buri mugororwa afite icyumba cye, ariko mu masaha y’umugoroba bagataha bakajya muri hotel aho baba bacumbitse.

Hari impamvu zatuma abanyarwanda bemererwa gusurwa muri ubu buryo?

Mu gusesengura iki kibazo, twaganiriye na Me Bagabo Faustin, Umwavoka mu Rugaga rw’Abavoka mu Rwanda akaba n’Umwarimu muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, uri gukora ubushakashatsi kuri iyi ngingo.

Agaragaza impamvu nyinshi zikwiye gushingirwaho ku buryo mu Rwanda bene ubu buryo bwakwemera, aho yizeye ko bwatanga umusaruro ukomeye mu kubaka imiryango.

Me Bagabo atanga impamvu enye z’ingenzi zikwiye gushingirwaho. Iya mbere ni ukurengera umuryango aho asobanura ko ingingo ya 18 y’Itegeko Nshinga iteganya ko “Umuryango, ari wo shingiro kamere ry’imbaga y’Abanyarwanda, urengerwa na Leta ndetse Leta igasabwa gushyiraho amategeko n’inzego bikwiye bishinzwe kurengera umuryango, by’umwihariko umwana na nyina, kugira ngo umuryango ugire ubwisanzure”.

Akomeza asobanura kandi ko bishimangirwa n’ingingo ya 17 y’Itegeko Nshinga iteganya ko “Uburenganzira bwo gushyingiranwa no kugira umuryango burengerwa n’amategeko.” Ku byerekeye kugira umuryango asobanura ko bibumbatiye “kororoka” kuko umuryango ugizwe n’umugabo, umugore n’abana uretse uwagira ibyago byo kubura urubyaro.

Kuri iyi ngingo yo kurengera umuryango, Me Bagabo asobanura ko kwemerera umugore cyangwa umugabo kuba yahura n’uwo bashakanye ufunzwe, ku buryo banatera akabariro byabafasha gukomeza urukundo rwabo, bakabana neza n’iyo baba batari kumwe ku buryo ufunzwe afungurwa agasanga nta cyahindutse mu muryango we.

Asobanura ko niba umugabo afunzwe, umugore we adashobora kumugeraho ngo bahuze urugwiro, nawe ku rundi ruhande hari icyo aba yambuwe, ku buryo niba ari nk’abantu batari bakabonye urubyaro, baba babuze amahirwe yo kororoka.

Indi mpamvu ya kabiri abishingiraho, ni uko uko umuntu amara igihe afunzwe, atabonana n’uwo bashakanye, ni ko urukundo rugenda rumushiramo. Ati “Kuba wamwemerera kuryamana n’uwo bashakanye ni kimwe mu bituma akomeza kugira umutima w’urukundo ku wo bashakanye.”

Impamvu ya gatatu, ahamya ko nubwo itakorewe ubushakashatsi, mu bihugu byinshi havugwa ko abenshi iyo bagiye muri gereza bakamara igihe batabasha guhura n’abo bashakanye, bishora mu bikorwa byo gukora imibonano mpuzabitsina n’abo bahuje igitsina.

Ngo bibaye ari ukuri kuko, byagira ingaruka ku muryango kuko “iyo umuntu afunguwe, ajya hanze atagikeneye uwo bashakanye”. Ati “Najya hanze igisubizo kizaba icyo gusenya umuryango.”

Impamvu ya kane ni uko ngo iyo ubu burenganzira butabayeho, abenshi mu bashakanye ntibasaba gatanya, ahubwo binjira abandi bagore cyangwa bakinjirwa n’abandi bagabo. Ufunzwe iyo afunguwe, havuka amakimbirane ndetse bikarangira batanye kandi atari icyaha gikojeje isoni gitumye batandukana ahubwo ari uko uwasigaye hanze yananiwe kwihangana.

Yakomeje agira ati “Icya nyuma ni uburenganzira bwo kororoka. Nk’umukobwa cyangwa umusore, bakimara gushaka, umusore bagahita bamufunga undi agasigara hanze wenda afite imyaka 30. Mu myaka 15, umugore azaba acuze, nutabemerera kubyara kandi bagikundanye, umwe agikunze undi, uzaba ubabujije kubona urubyaro kandi kubona urubyaro ni uburenganzira ndakumirwa buteganywa n’Itegeko Nshinga ry’u Rwanda.”

Muri Roumanie ibyumba byakirirwamo abagiye muri visite conjugale ni uku biba bimeze

Byafasha imfungwa kugororoka bikazirinda n’ihungabana

Uku gusura ntabwo kugamije kuryamana gusa. Urugero umugabo n’umugore baba bafite byinshi byo kuganira, ku buryo umugororwa aba yemerewe kuganira n’abana be, akumva ubuzima babayemo, akaganira n’umugore we akamutura ibibazo undi nawe akamuhoza.

Uyu munyamategeko avuga ko hari nk’abagabo baba barihebye, batazi uko abana babo babayeho, niba barya umugati cyangwa se niba bakibona imyambaro, kabone n’iyo baba bamusura kubera umwanya muto bamarana nawe ugasanga agikeneye kumenya byinshi kuri bo.

Me Bagabo ati “Abenshi iyo bagifungwa usanga barahungabanye kubera gutekereza uburyo imiryango yabo yasigaye hanze ibayeho cyane uwasize abana. Hari usiga umwana akivuka akaba yasubira mu buzima busanzwe umwana we amaze imyaka. 15 atazi ko se abaho.”

“Umugabo ufunzwe, kumwereka umwana we bakaganira nk’aho bari mu rugo, ni nko kumuha amafaranga menshi. Kumuha umwana we w’amezi abiri, akamuterura umwanya munini, ni nko kumuha Isi. Ibyo biri muri iyi gahunda yo gusura byihariye.”

Bagabo yavuze ko mu bindi bihugu, guha imfungwa ubu burenganzira, bisaba ibintu byinshi, bityo nazo ziba zigomba kurangwa n’imyitwarire myiza. Ati “Bisaba ikinyabupfura kiri hejuru igihe bafunzwe, uwitwaye nabi muri gereza ntabwo bamuha ubu burenganzira.”

Guha ubu burenganzira abagororwa ntibyaba ari ukurengera?

Abantu benshi bagaragaza ko kuba umugororwa yakwemererwa uburenganzira nk’ubu, byaba bimeze nko gufata umuntu wakoze icyaha ukamushimira, mu gihe ahubwo akwiriye guhabwa igihano gituma yitekerezaho agahinduka, ku buryo ubwo burenganzira azongera kubusubirana yarazinutswe icyabumwambura.

Me Bagabo yavuze byaba ari ukwibeshya kumva ko guha ubu burenganzira umugororwa byaba ari ukurengera.

Ati “Gufungwa bivuze kukubuza uburenganzira bwo kwidegembya uko ushaka. Ni cyo bivuze cyonyine. Iyo hari ikindi bakeneye kongeraho, urukiko rucyongeraho. Imfungwa igumana uburenganzira bundi bwose uretse ubwo kugenda cyangwa ubwo gutora cyangwa gutorwa, hari uburenganzira bumwe utakaza busaba ko uba utarafunzwe.”

“Itegeko ryacu riteganya ko umuntu afungirwa hafi y’umuryango we. Kuki se ribiteganya? Kuki batavuga ngo bagufungire i Rusizi kandi uri uw’i Rwamagana? Ni uko bazi ko umuryango wawe ufite uburenganzira bwo kugusura.”

Kuri we kuba abagororwa batemerewe guhura n’abo bashakanye ngo batere akabariro, avuga ko abaturage batagomba kumva ko igihugu cyahonyoye uburenganzira bwa muntu kuko ubu burenganzira ari bumwe mu buzanwa no guhindura imyumvire n’amikoro y’igihugu (Progressive rights) ariko yizera ko biganiriweho n’inzego za Leta n’abandi bafatanyabikorwa byashoboka kandi bigafasha ubuyobozi kubaka umuryango nyarwanda.

Ati “Abantu benshi bari muri gereza icyo babuze kuruta ibindi si ugutera akabariro, ni uburenganzira bwo kwidegembya. Kuba hatekerezwa ubu burenganzira ku bashakanye ni mu rwego rwo gusigasira umuryango nyarwanda ariko ntibivuze ngo numuha kuryamana n’umugore cyangwa umugabo we rimwe mu mezi angahe ngo uzaba umufashe nk’aho adafunzwe.”

Ese byakorwa gute?

Umwe mu baganiriye na IGIHE utashatse ko amazina ye agaragara muri iyi nkuru, yavuze ko mu Rwanda iyi gahunda itashoboka kuko isaba amikoro ari hejuru yo kubaka ibyumba bishya abagororwa bajya bahuriramo n’abo bashakanye.

Ati “Mu buryo bwabyo biragoye. Bisaba ibyumba byihariye.”

Me Bagabo yabwiye IGIHE ko akiri gukora ubushakashatsi areba uko mu bindi bihugu bikorwa, gusa kuri we ntabona ibyumba nk’imbogamizi ahubwo asanga icyangombwa ari uko abantu baba bamaze kubyumva gusa yemera ko hari icyo bisaba ariko nk’igihugu gikunda umuryango akumva ko bishoboka nubwo, “cyane ko igihugu cyacu cyakoze byinshi mu byerekeye gufata neza imfungwa n’abagororwa”.

Mu gusobanura ko bishoboka yabishingiye ko abantu bose bafunzwe badakeneye ubu burenganzira kuko buhabwa abashakanye byemewe n’amategeko ku buryo ushobora gusanga mu bantu 10000, abantu 3000 aribo barebwa n’uburenganzira ndetse ahenshi usanga abakatiwe igifungo cy’igihe gito batarebwa n’ubu burenganzira kuko baba bafite icyizere cyo kuba bataha mu miryango yabo vuba.

Ati “Aho badafite icyumba cya buri mugororwa, bubaka ibyumba iruhande rwa gereza, umuntu akinjira mugenzi we akamusangamo bakishimana, niba ari abana bakabona papa cyangwa mama wabo bakazana n’ibyo kurya wenda bagasangira, ubundi amasaha yarangira bagasohoka.”

“Nubwo igihugu kidafite ubushobozi buhagije nk’ubw’ibindi byateye imbere, ariko niba kibasha kubaka inzu zo kubamo ndetse kikabona ibiryo bitunga abantu barenga ibihumbi 10 muri gereza ya Nyarugenge (Mageragere) kubaka inzu imwe nibura ifite ibyumba 50, irimo igitanda n’ubwogero no kongera abacungagereza bashinzwe iyi serivisi mpamya ko nabyo byashoboka.”

“Noneho abaturage bavuye hanze ya gereza bakeneye gusura ababo bashakanye nabo bakaba bashyiraho uruhare rwabo batanga nibura amafaranga make kugira ngo abakora isuku y’iyo nzu babashe kubona icyo bahembwa mu rwego rwo gushyigikira urwego rwa RCS.”

Kuri Me Bagabo ngo buri wese abashije kwishyira mu mwanya w’umuntu ufunzwe yarasize umuryango hanze yakumva uburyo ubu burenganzira bukenewe nubwo kubutanga bisaba Leta imbaraga nyinshi.

Mu bihugu ubu buryo bwemewe, umuntu winjiye muri gereza aba yabanje gusakwa, ku buryo nta kintu na kimwe kitemewe yinjizamo.

Hamwe na hamwe babyita ibyumba byo gukoreramo urukundo

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