Impungenge ku mibare iri hejuru y’indwara zo mu mutwe mu Rwanda

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel
Kuya 10 Ukwakira 2020 saa 04:59
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Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku Buzima (OMS), risobanura indwara zo mu mutwe nk’imyitwarire idasanzwe y’ibitekerezo, amarangamutima, ibyiyumviro, imyitwarire n’ibindi nk’ibyo bishobora kugaragara ku muntu mu gihe runaka.

Izi ndwara ishobora gufata umuntu mu gihe gito, bitewe wenda n’ibihe bikomeye ari kunyuramo, cyangwa se imyitwarire nko kunywa ibiyobyabwenge, ariko bikazagera aho bigakira.

Ku bandi, hari igihe izi ndwara ziba karande, zikamara igihe kirekire, zikagira ingaruka ku buzima kandi akenshi, mu gihe zitavuwe neza zikanaganisha ku rupfu rutewe no kwiyahura mu gihe zidakumiriwe hakiri kare.

Mu bushakashatsi bwakorewe muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, bwagaragaje ko 60% by’abantu biyahura, baba barigeze kugira ibibazo by’indwara zo mu mutwe, zirimo agahinda gakabije n’izindi.

Mu Rwanda, kimwe n’ahandi henshi ku Isi, ikibazo cy’indwara zo mu mutwe kirahangayikishije, ariko bikaba umwihariko ku Rwanda, bitewe n’amateka yihariye igihugu cyanyuzemo ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994.

Umuntu ashobora kwibwira ko nyuma y’imyaka 26, abantu bibagiwe (cyangwa birengagije) ibyo banyuzemo mu bihe bya Jenoside, ku buryo ibibazo by’imitekerereze biyikomokaho, yaba ku bayikoze n’abayikorewe, byashize. Gusa ibi si ko bimeze, kuko iki cyaha ni ndengakamere, ku buryo kidakira mu buryo bworoshye, nk’uko Inzobere mu buvuzi bw’indwara zo mu mutwe mu bitaro bya CHUK, Dr. Murekatete Chantal, yabitangarije IGIHE mu kiganiro cyihariye.

Yagize ati “Jenoside ntabwo ari ikintu cyoroshye, ari abayikorewe ari n’abayikoze, bose ntabwo bayikira burundu. Ababikoze, bakoze ibikorwa by’ubunyamaswa ubundi umuntu muzima atakabaye akora, abayikorewe na bo bambuwe ubumuntu, ibyo rero bigira ingaruka ku mpande zombi, kandi bikagira ingaruka z’igihe kirekire kuri bo ubwabo n’abana babakomokaho”.

Uyu muganga yabwiye IGIHE ko uko izi ndwara zimara igihe kinini, ari na ko zirushaho gukomera, ku buryo abarwayi “nakira bakunda kungeraho bararembye cyane kuko bativuje hakiri kare”.

Mu gihe Isi iri kwizihiza Umunsi Mpuzamahanga wahariwe kuzirikana ku ndwara zo mu mutwe, wizihijwe kuri uyu wa 10 Ukwakira, ubushakashatsi bwakozwe n’Ikigo cy’Igihugu Gishinzwe Ubuzima mu Rwanda, RBC, bugaragaza ko imibare y’abarwaye indwara zo mu mutwe iri hejuru, kandi ko hakwiye kongerwa ingufu mu guhangana n’iki kibazo by’umwihariko ku gihugu nk’u Rwanda, gifite amateka yihariye ashobora gutuma abantu bagira ibibazo by’indwara zo mu mutwe ku bwinshi.

Ubu bushakashatsi bwakozwe hagati ya 2017 na 2018, bugaragaza ko muri 2018, abantu 223 500 bagiye kwa muganga bashaka ubufasha ku bibazo bifitanye isano n’indwara zo mu mutwe.

Ni umubare uri hejuru bitewe n’imiterere y’iyi ndwara, kuko akenshi n’abayirwaye baba batayizi, mu gihe n’abayimenye, bagira ipfunwe ryo kuyivuza bitewe n’uburyo umuryango nyarwanda ufata iyi ndwara n’abayirwaye. Nk’ubu bikekwa ko 85.6% by’abasubije mu bushakashatsi bwa RBC, batagiye kwisuzumisha indwara zo mu mutwe, n’ubwo babaga bazizi cyangwa bafite ibimenyetso byazo, kabone n’ubwo zivurwa hifashishijwe ubwisungane mu kwivuza bwa mituweli.

Dr. Murekatete avuga ko impamvu y’uko kutivuza ari uko indwara zo mu mutwe zihariye, ku buryo abantu badakunze kujya kuzivuza. Yagize ati “nta bwo ari malariya, burya kuvuga ibimenyetso bya maraliya biroroshye, ariko kuvuga ibyiyumvo byawe nta bwo ari ibintu byoroshye, kuko biragoye kubisobanurira umuntu kugira ngo abyumve, kereka iyo abizobereyemo”.

Murekatete kandi avuga ko iyo abantu bafite ibimenyetso by’indwara zo mu mutwe, aho kugira ngo bajye kubyivuza kwa muganga, bahitamo gukoresha ubundi buryo burimo kujya gusenga, gufata ibiyobyabwenge n’ibindi bashobora kumva ko bibahaye amahoro, n’ubwo ibyo na byo hari igihe birushaho kubasunikira mu bibazo kurushaho.

Muri ubu bushakashatsi, bwakorewe ku bantu 19 110 bari mu byiciro byose kandi bafite hagati y’imyaka 14 na 65, hagaragajwe indwara eshanu zo mu mutwe zibasiye abanyarwanda muri iki gihe.

1. Agahinda gakabije (Major depression)

Indwara y’agahinda gakabije yihariye 11.9% by’abarwaye indwara zo mu mutwe mu Rwanda, ikaba ari yo ya mbere yibasiye benshi mu gihugu.

Iyi ndwara irangwa no kwiheba, umuntu akumva nta gaciro afite mu bandi, agahora yishinja amakosa kandi agahorana ikimwaro buri gihe ku buryo hari igihe yumva nta kintu na kimwe amaze ku Isi.

Iyo ibi bikomeje, umurwayi atangira kubura ibimushimisha, yaba yarakundaga umupira akawuzinukwa, ubuzima bukamubihira cyane, akumva yagira amahoro abwiyambuye, kuko kubaho bimubera umutwaro kurusha kutabaho.

Iyo bigeze kuri iki kigero, akenshi umurwayi afata icyemezo cyo kwiyahura cyangwa atabikora, akaba atagitanga umusaruro mu bikorwa yari asanzwe akora, kuko imitekerereze ye ihungabana cyane.

Ibi byose nyamara biba byarahereye ku bintu bito, kandi biba bishobora gukumirwa hakiri kare, ariko uko umuntu atagira uwo aganiriza ku byiyumviro bye, cyangwa agatotezwa igihe kirekire, akamburwa agaciro mu bandi n’ibindi nk’ibyo, byose biba bishobora kuzarangira iyi ndwara ibaye ingutu, rimwe na rimwe ikanahitana ubuzima bw’uyirwaye.

2. Ihungabana (Panic Disorder)

Indwara y’ihungabana yihariye 8.1% by’uburwayi bwo mu mutwe mu Rwanda. Iyi ndwara irangwa no kugira ubwoba bukabije, rimwe na rimwe butewe n’ibintu byoroheje, hakaba n’ubwo ubwo bwoba buza gutyo gusa nta kibuteye cyihariye.

Uku guhora umuntu ahungabana bituma adatuza, agahora yiteze ko hashobora kugira ikintu kibi cyabaho, inshingano ze ntazuzuze neza kandi n’ubushobozi bwe bwo gufata ibyemezo, gutekereza ku kintu no guhitamo bukagabanuka.

Ibi kandi bituma uyu muntu ashobora kuribwa mu gituza, agahumeka insigane inshuro nyinshi, umutima we ugatera cyane n’ibindi byinshi bishobora n’ubundi kumukururira izindi ndwara zikomeye zirimo nk’umutima.

3. Ihungabana rishingiye ku mateka (Past-trauma Stress Disorder, PTSD)

Kimwe n’izindi ndwara zose twabonye, iri hungabana rishingira ku bintu byakubayeho bikakugiraho ingaruka zikomeye. Ibyo bishobora kuba nk’urupfu rw’uwo wakundaga, gutandukana n’uwo mwashakanye, ihohoterwa n’ibindi bitandukanye.

Irangwa n’uko umuntu ahora yibuka ikintu kibi cyamubayeho, akaba ashobora kubura ibitotsi nijoro ariko yanabibona, akarota inzozi mbi z’ibyamubayeho, kandi agakunda kubitekerezaho cyane, yaba abishaka cyangwa atabishaka. Muri make, ibitekerezo bye biganzwa n’amateka ye bigahora bigaruka ari na ko bimubuza amahoro.

Ibi bishobora kuba nyuma gato y’igikorwa kibi cyabaye ku muntu, ariko bishobora no kumara igihe gishobora no kugera ku myaka myinshi nyuma y’icyo gikorwa.

Iyi ndwara kandi irangwa no kuzinukwa gukomeye, ku buryo niba nk’umukobwa yarayitewe no gufatwa ku ngufu, ashobora kuzinukwa abagabo bose burundu, kuko yumva bose bameze kimwe.

Mu Rwanda, abayirwaye bangana na 3.6% by’abarwaye indwara zo mu mutwe bose.

4. Kubatwa (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, OCD)

Indwara yo kubatwa irangwa no kugira igishyika ndetse n’ibitekerezo ushobora kuba utifuza, biguhatira gukora ikintu runaka kugira ngo ugire amahoro.

Ibi bituma urwaye iyi ndwara ahora akora ibintu runaka kugira ngo yumve aguwe neza, ari nayo mpamvu byitwa kubatwa, kuko hari aho bigera umuntu wimenyereje ikintu runaka akaba agomba kugikora uko byagenda kose, rimwe na rimwe atanabishaka.

Urugero ni nko ku bantu bakoresha ibiyobyabwenge, cyangwa se bitoje akandi kamenyero, kubyikuraho birabagora kabone n’ubwo iyo myitwarire yabo yatangira kubagiraho ingaruka zirimo nk’indwara.

Ikibabaje ni uko n’ubwo abarwaye iyi ndwara baba bashaka ibyishimo, nyuma y’igihe runaka bongera gushaka cya kintu kibatera bya byishimo, bakarushaho kugikora inshuro nyinshi, ari na ko kukivaho biba bizabagora cyane.

Muri izi ndwara tumaze kubona, iyi ni yo itagira umuti uzwi, uretse nyine ko uyirwaye akora uko ashoboye agahindura imyitwarire ye abifashijwemo n’inshuti n’abandi bamuri hafi.

Iyi ndwara yihariye 3.6% by’uburwayi bwose bwo mu mutwe mu Rwanda.

5. Igicuri (Epilepsy)

Iyi ndwara yihariye 2.9% by’abarwaye indwara zo mu mutwe mu Rwanda, ikaba ari indwara irangwa no gutakaza ubwenge, kutagenzura ibice birimo amakuru n’amaboko, kwibagirwa bikabije n’ibindi bitandukanye.

Aho itandukaniye n’izindi ndwara, yo ishobora guterwa n’ibikomere byo ku mutwe, kuba umuntu yaravukanye umwuka mucye n’ibindi.

Muri rusange, izi ndwara zishobora gukira, ndetse hari n’izifite imiti, ndetse iyo miti ikaba iboneka no mu Rwanda ku giciro gito.

Leta kandi yashyize imbaraga nyinshi mu kurushaho guteza imbere ubuvuzi bw’indwara zo mu mutwe, kuko ari zimwe mu zigira ingaruka zikomeye iyo zitavuwe neza, kandi zikaba zishobora kurwarwa n’abantu benshi mu Rwanda, bitewe n’amateka yihariye y’igihugu.

Amakuru IGIHE ifite ni uko muri buri vuriro rya leta, hakoramo umuganga wahuguriwe kuvura indwara zo mu mutwe, imiti y’izi ndwara kandi nayo iri mu mavuriro hafi ya yose, ndetse iboneka kuri mituweli, nk’uko bigenda ku zindi ndwara nyinshi.

Dr. Murekatete yavuze ko nubwo izi ndwara zishobora kuvurirwa kwa muganga, ariko zishobora no gukumirwa hakiri kare, kandi bigizwemo uruhare n’abantu bari hafi y’uyirwaye.

Yagize ati “ikintu cya mbere ni ugutega amatwi [uyirwaye], bakamwumva, ntihakagire umuntu uhagarara gushaka ubufasha mu gihe abona afite ibibazo bishobora kuganisha kuri izi ndwara”.

Iyi nzobere kandi yasabye abantu kuvuga ibyo batekereza, bakavuga ibintu bibabangamiye, kugira ngo n’uzashaka kubafasha azagire aho ahera.

Ati “tuvuge ko wagiranye ikibazo n’umuntu, aho kugira ngo buri wese ashyire amarangamutima ye ku ruhande abantu baganire ku kibazo, buri wese akagenda akagumana ikibazo cye, umutwe ukamurya ibintu bikagenda nabi… kuvuga rero ni umuti w’ingenzi, kandi n’abanyarwanda barabivuze ko ‘ijambo ni mugenzi w’Imana’ kandi ‘ijambo rirarema”.

Uyu muganga kandi ashishikariza abantu gukora ibintu bibashimisha, bakagira umwanya wo gusabana n’inshuti zabo ndetse no kwishima, kuko na byo bishobora kugabanya ibyago byo guheranwa n’izi ndwara.

Yagize ati “kwishima bituma umuntu asohora imisemburo y’ibyishimo, kandi iyo misemburo igabanya kwiheba cyane”.

Yasabye abanyarwanda guhindura imyumvire, bakamenya ko indwara zo mu mutwe zivurwa zigakira burundu, bakihutira kugana kwa muganga igihe cyose biyumvisemo ibimenyetso byazo.

Indwara zo mu mutwe zishobora kuvurwa zigakira

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