Ni iki cyatumye u Rwanda rutagera ku ntego yo kwihaza ku musaruro w’umuceri?

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel
Kuya 2 Ukwakira 2020 saa 08:37
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Mu 2008, Leta y’u Rwanda yatangije umushinga wo kuvugurura ubuhinzi mu gihugu, maze ishyiraho gahunda yo guhuza ubutaka bugahingwaho igihingwa kimwe, hagamijwe kuzamura umusaruro wacyo ndetse no gukurura ishoramari mu buhinzi, byose bigamije guteza imbere Abanyarwanda barenga miliyoni ebyiri bakora ubuhinzi nk’akazi kabo ka buri munsi.

Nyuma y’imyaka irenga 10, ibyagezweho birashimishije kuko magingo aya, 85% by’umusaruro w’ibiribwa igihugu gikoresha kiwukura mu buhinzi gikora, kandi ubuhinzi bwihariye 24% by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu mu mwaka ushize, bukurikiye urwego rwa serivisi rwagize uruhare rungana na 49%.

Ibi byatewe n’ishoramari igihugu cyakoze mu buhinzi cyane cyane mu bushakashatsi bwo gutuburira imbuto mu Rwanda, hakiyongeraho no kugeza ikoranabuhanga ryo kuhira mu bice byinshi by’igihugu.

Gusa ariko n’ubwo ibi byose byagezweho, ubuhinzi bw’umuceri ni bumwe mu bwahushije intego yari yifujwe, ndetse umuceri w’u Rwanda watakaje ubushobozi bwo guhangana n’indi miceri iturutse hanze y’igihugu, kuko usanga ikomoka mu bihugu nka Tanzania, Thailand na Pakistan ikunzwe cyane ku isoko ry’imbere mu gihugu, n’ubwo ihenze ugereranyije n’ikorerwa mu Rwanda.

Muri 2011, u Rwanda rwatangije gahunda yo kuzamura umusaruro w’umuceri yitwa ‘National Rice Development Strategy’ (NRDS), yagombaga kuzafasha igihugu kwihaza ku musaruro w’umuceri gikenera, ndetse yewe bitarenze 2018, igihugu cyagombaga kuba kigeze ku rwego rwo kugemura umuceri wacyo mu bihugu by’amahanga.

Kugira ngo ibi bigerweho, igihugu cyiyemeje kongera ubuso bw’ibishanga bihingwamo umuceri, bukava kuri hegitari 6 500 bukagera kuri hegitari 28 500 n’umusaruro kuri hegitari imwe ukava kuri toni enye ukagera kuri toni zirindwi.

Usibye kongera ingano y’umuceri uhingwa n’ubuso uhingwaho, igihugu cyaniyemeje gushora imari mu buziranenge bwawo, dore ko ari kimwe mu byakunze kunengwa n’abawukoresha mu Rwanda.

Uyu mushinga kandi wari witezweho kugabanya ikinyuranyo cy’ibyo u Rwanda rutumiza hanze n’ibyo rwoherezayo, kuko byari burenge miliyoni 37$ (arenga miliyari 36 Frw) yakoreshejwe n’igihugu gitumiza umuceri hanze yacyo muri 2015.

Aya n’ubundi yari bujye mu mifuka y’abahinzi b’umuceri, akabaha ubushobozi bwo kwiteza imbere, ibyaro batuyemo bikungukiramo, abashoramari bakabigana ku bwinshi, urubyiruko rukahabonera imirimo, ubukene bugaterwa ishoti mu gihugu, maze abagituye bagakirigita ifaranga.

Kugeza ubu ariko, nyuma y’imyaka ibiri ku gihe igihugu cyari cyihaye yo kwesa umuhigo wo kwihaza ku musaruro w’umuceri, u Rwanda ruracyafite icyuho kinini cy’umusaruro w’umuceri kibona ku mwaka uri munsi y’uwo gikenera.

Nk’ubu igihugu cyasaruye toni 113 880 mu 2018, zivuye kuri toni 83 338 muri 2017, nyamara umuceri ukenewe mu gihugu ungana na toni 204 000 ku mwaka, bivuze ko harimo icyuho kingana na toni 90 120.

Imwe mu mpamvu zabiteye, harimo kuba u Rwanda rutarabashije gutunganya ingano y’ubuso buhingwaho umuceri yari iteganyijwe, kuko ubu ruhinga ku buso bungana na hegitari 15 000 nyamara rwari rwiyemeje kuwuhinga ku buso bungana na hegitari 28 500 mu mwaka wa 2018, nk’uko byatangajwe na Dr. Charles Bucagu, Umuyobozi Mukuru Wungirije, Ushinzwe Ubushakashatsi no gukwirakwiza Ikoranabuhanga mu Kigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ubuhinzi, RAB.

Ibi kandi byahuriranye n’uko umusaruro w’ingano y’umuceri wagombaga kuboneka kuri hegitari imwe utagezweho, kuko hakiboneka hagati ya hegitari enye n’ishanu kandi zakagombye kuba ari zirindwi.

Abanyarwanda bakunda umuceri muremure udakunze kuboneka mu Rwanda

Bijyanye n’igice cy’ubutumburuke igihugu giherereyemo, mu Rwanda hakunze kwera umuceri mugufi. Uyu ni wo abahinzi b’Abanyarwanda bajyana ku isoko, ukagira ikibazo cyo kuhahurira n’umuceri muremure udakunze kwera mu Rwanda, ariko ukaba umaze kwigarurira isoko ryarwo.

Abakunzi b’umuceri mu Rwanda ntibakangwa n’igiciro kiri hejuru cy’umuceri uturuka hanze, kiri hagati ya 800 Frw na 1200 Frw, kuko bawugura kurusha uwo mu Rwanda nka Kigori, ushobora kugura hagati ya 650 Frw na 750 Frw.

Ibi bituma abahinzi b’umuceri mu Rwanda, n’ubwo bawutanga ku giciro gito ugereranyije n’indi ituruka hanze, bashobora kubura isoko ry’umuceri wabo, bakagabanya ibiciro cyane kugira ngo umusaruro udapfa ubusa, bikarangira bahombye kuko batagaruza amafaranga bashoye bawuhinga.

Ibihombo by’abahinzi b’umuceri byakunze kuvugwa inshuro nyinshi, aho amakoperative awuhinga yakunze gutaka ko igiciro agurirwaho umuceri kiri munsi y’igiciro akoresha awuhinga.

Bamwe mu bakunze gukoresha umuceri, barimo restaurant n’amahoteli, na bo bakunze kuvuga ko bakoresha umuceri uturuka hanze kuko uhumura, ukaryoha ndetse ugatubuka, ku buryo n’ubwo uba uhenze kurusha uwo mu Rwanda, ariko ukurura abakiliya benshi.

Ibi bituma isoko rinini umuceri wo mu Rwanda ucuruzwaho, ari ibigo by’amashuri yisumbuye, mu gihe rero na byo byafunze imiryango muri ibi bihe bya Coronavirus, abahinzi bawo hirya no hino mu gihugu bari kwicira isazi mu jisho.

U Rwanda mu nzira zigamije guhinga umuceri muremure

Abashakashatsi n’abandi bashinzwe kureberera urwego rw’ubuhinzi mu Rwanda, cyane cyane ubuhinzi bw’umuceri, bamaze kubona ikibazo gihari ndetse ingamba zo kukivugutira umuti zirakomeje.

Ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ubuhinzi, RAB, kimaze iminsi gikora ubushakashatsi ku mbuto z’umuceri muremure ukunzwe mu Rwanda, harebwa ukuntu wakorwa ku buryo wihanganira ikirere cy’u Rwanda ukaba ushobora no kuhera.

Kugeza ubu, hari amoko atanu mashya y’imbuto z’umuceri muremure yamaze guhabwa abatubuzi b’imbuto kugira ngo bayatubure, bivuze ko yarenze icyiciro cy’ubushakashatsi akaba ashobora gutangira guhingwa mu Rwanda mu bihe bya vuba.

Ayo moko arimo Gwiza, Umutebo na Cyuzuzo yatanzwe mu ntara y’i Burasirazuba n’Amajyepfo, mu gihe andi moko atatu, ari yo Kira, Cyuzuzo na Kageno nayo yamaze gutangwa mu ntara y’i Burengerazuba bw’u Rwanda, ariko yo akaba akiri mu igerageza.

Ku rundi ruhande, hari andi moko abiri, ari yo Twigire na Ndamira ari kugeragerezwa mu gishanga cya Bugarama giherereye mu karere ka Rusizi, kikaba kimwe mu bigega bikomeye by’umusaruro w’umuceri mu Rwanda.

Charles Bucagu yavuze ubushakashatsi bwa RAB bwibanda ku mbuto z’umuceri muremure kuko bimaze kugaragara ko ari wo ukunzwe ku isoko ry’u Rwanda.

Yagize ati “Abenshi mu bakoresha umuceri bakunda umuceri muremure kandi natwe ubushakashatsi bwacu bugamije kudufasha kugira imbuto zikwiye z’umuceri muremure. U Rwanda rwiganjemo umuceri mugufi kuko wera cyane mu bishanga bifite ubutumburuke buri hasi, ariko turi gushaka amoko y’imbuto z’umuceri muremure zishobora kwihagararaho [zikihanganira imiterere y’aho u Rwanda ruherereye]”.

Bucagu yavuze ko hari amoko y’imbuto z’umuceri muremure yatangiye kugaragaza ubushobozi bwo guhangana n’umuceri uturuka hanze.

Yagize ati “[Ubwoko bw’umuceri witwa] Buryohe na Fashingabo ni amoko ashobora guhangana n’umuceri uturuka hanze kuko agira impumuro nziza. Ni amoko kandi ashobora kwihanganira indwara ndetse agatanga umusaruro uri hejuru cyane. Ushobora gusaruro toni zirenze eshanu kuri hegitari imwe”.

Akamaro k’ubuhinzi ku bukungu bw’u Rwanda ni ntashidikanywaho. Leta iteganya ko kugeza mu 2024, umusaruro w’ubuhinzi igihugu kizaba cyohereza hanze uzaba ufite agaciro ka miliyari imwe y’amadolari, uvuye kuri miliyoni 465$ (arenga miliyari 445 Frw) wariho muri 2018.

Iterambere ry'umuceri wo mu Rwanda ryakomwe mu nkokora n'uko Abanyarwanda bakunda uwo hanze kurusha uwo mu gihugu

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