Ni irihe herezo ry’urukurikirane rw’ubwicanyi budasiba bukorerwa Abanyamulenge?

Yanditswe na Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi
Kuya 6 Ukwakira 2020 saa 07:47
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Imyaka ikomeje kuba myinshi Abanyamulenge bo muri RDC bakorerwa ubwicanyi ndengakamere. Ababikurikiranira hafi babona ubwo bwicanyi nka Jenoside, ariko ntiyitwa yo byeruye kuko hatagaragara uruhare rutaziguye rwa Leta mu mahano arimo kuba.

Amateka agaragaza ko Abanyamulenge bageze mu cyaje kuba RDC bavuye mu Rwanda mu kinyejana cya 17, icyo gihe u Rwanda rwari igihugu gifite ubutegetsi buhamye, ariko RDC yari itarabaho nk’igihugu kimwe.

Ikibazo gihagaze gite?

Kuva mu myaka y’umwaduko w’abakoloni, Abanyamulenge bakomeje kuvutswa uburenganzira ku gihugu cyabo, harimo n’uburenganzira bwo kubaho. Ubwicanyi butaziguye bwatangiye kubakorerwa muri za 1964 mu gihe cy’intambara izwi nk’iya Mulele. Nyuma y’agahenge k’imyaka itari mike, ubu bwicanyi bwaje gukomeza mu myaka ya 1996, 1997na 1998.

Kuva muri Mata 2017, ubu bwicanyi bwafashe indi ntera. Kuva icyo gihe, imitwe yitwaje intwaro ya Mai-Mai ifatanyije cyane cyane na Red Tabara na FNL PALIPEHUTU yo mu Burundi, yavuye mu bice bitandukanye byiganjemo ibyo mu ntara ya Kivu y’Amajyepfo nka Lemera, Rurambo, Itombwe, Swima, Uvira, Sange, Lulenge n’ahandi, mu buryo bigaragara ko bwateguwe neza, batangira kwica abantu, gutwika inzu, kunyaga amatungo no kumenesha abo batabashije kwica.

Imibare y’agateganyo igaragaza ko kuva muri Mata 2017 kugeza muri Kamena 2020 abasivile barenga 400 b’Abanyamulenge bari bamaze kwicwa, imidugudu irenga 300 imaze gutwikwa no gusenyuka burundu, inka zirenga 240,000 zimaze gusahurwa, ibigo by’amashuri 147 ndetse n’ibigo nderabuzima 57 byaratwitswe, birasenywa cyangwa birasahurwa.

Mu kiganiro n’umwarimu muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda mu gashami ko gukemura amakimbirane, Dr Aggée Shyaka Mugabe, akaba n’umusesenguzi ku makimbirane n’intambara bibera mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari, yavuze ko ukurikije uko ikibazo gihagaze, ubu ubwicanyi bukorwa mu buryo ndengakamere.

Yagize ati: “Ni ubwicanyi bugaragaza ubugome ndengakamere […] hari amafoto mfite ateye ubwoba y’abagore bafashwe ku ngufu, bagasambanywa n’abicanyi ikivunge, barangiza bakabaca amabere ndetse n’imyanya ndagagitsina. Imibiri yabo yagaragayeho ibisebe ahantu hose, muri make ni ubwicanyi ubona ko burimo ubugome bwa kinyamanswa ku buryo no kureba ayo mafoto ubwabyo bishoborwa na bakeya”.

“Hari abo bica babaciye imitwe, bagasiga inyandiko ku mirambo yabo zirimo izigira ziti tuzabamara, tuzabasubiza iwanyu, ntabwo muri Abanye-Congo, mwateye iki gihugu umwaku, ku buryo bigaragara ko hakorwa igisa n’ubukangurambaga bwo guhindura umuntu Shitani cyangwa inyamanswa (dehumanization), ku buryo umutesha agaciro ako ariko kose, bityo no kumwica bikorohera benshi”.

Dr Shyaka avuga ko urebye uko ikibazo gihagaze kuva mu ntangiro z’uyu mwaka, bisa n’aho ibintu bigenda birushaho kuba bibi uko imyaka ishira indi igataha, kuko ngo “mbere hicwaga umuntu umwe cyangwa bake, ukabona ubwicanyi budafite umurego nk’uwo bufite ubu”.

Ati “Bigeze mu 2018 bwariyongereye, ariko byaje kuba bibi cyane bigeze mu 2019 ugana mu mpera zawo, kugeza magingo aya. Kuva uyu mwaka wa 2020 watangira, ubwicanyi bwagiye bukorwa mu buryo buhitana abantu benshi icyarimwe, ibitero bikagabwa henshi icyarimwe cyangwa mu minsi ikurikiranye.”

Bivugwa ko kugeza ubu i Mulenge hasenywe nibura kuri 70%.

Abanyamulenge bakomeje kuva mu byabo ku bwinshi

Itandukaniro ry’ubwicanyi bwa none n’ubwabanje

Dr Shyaka avuga ko ubwicanyi bukorwa muri iki gihe butandukanye n’ubwabaye mu myaka yashize, kuko muri ibi bihe byashyizwemo imbaraga nyinshi haba mu gukangurira abandi kwica Abanyamulenge, kubagaragaza ko atari abantu nk’abandi, ibitagenda byose muri DRC bakabibagerekaho, kwihuza kw’andi moko ngo bice Abanyamulenge ndetse no kwinjiramo kw’imitwe ikomoka mu bindi bihugu.

Ati “Ubona mu by’ukuri ko hari umugambi wo kurimbura Abanyamulenge cyangwa byibuze kubirukana ku butaka bwa DRC.”

Yavuze ko hari abanyapolitiki ndetse n’abasirikare bamwe basanzwe bafite inshingano zo kurinda abaturage bose batavanguye, bagira uruhare mu kwifatanya n’abicanyi kubera urwango bafitiye Abanyamulenge.

Muri bo havugwa cyane cyane nka Gen Muhima, uwahoze ari Ministiri w’iterambere ry’icyaro Justin Bitakwira ukomoka muri Kivu y’amajyepfo, umunyapolitiki Martin Fayulu watsinzwe amatora y’umukuru w’igihugu yo muri 2018, umunyamakuru Kwebe Kimpele n’uwahoze ari umujyanama wihariye wa Perezida Mobutu mu by’ubutekano, Honoré Ngbanda, n’abandi bakomeje kugaragaza urwango bafitiye u Rwanda n’abarukomokaho, cyane cyane abazwi nk’Abatutsi.

DrShyaka yakomeje ati “Ababyungukiramo ni abanyapolitiki, kuko Abanyamulenge nta kindi babaziza nta n’ikindi babangira, ni uko bafite inkomoko mu Rwanda kandi bakaba ari Abatutsi. Icyo nicyo navuga ngo ni nk’icyaha cy’inkomoko [...] kuko abashaka kubirukana muri DRC baba bavuga bati ‘dore hari igihugu cyanyu hakurya hariya, u Rwanda, mwaba mwarakomotseyo kera cyangwa vuba – ibyo ntibaba babyitayeho – niho mwagombye kuba muri.”

“Ubu buryo ni nabwo bwakoreshejwe n’abanyapolitiki ba kera iyo bashakaga gutorwa, iyo bashakaga kugera ku nyungu zabo, bitwazaga kwanga abo Batutsi. Byarakomeje muri iyi myaka ya vuba, n’ubu nicyo kiri gukorwa.”

Nka Martin Fayulu ukomoka ahitwaga Bandundu mu burengerazuba bwo hagati bwa DRC, bivugwa ko yikomye Abanyamulenge k’inzira imwe yo kurwanya Perezida Tshisekedi ubanye neza n’u Rwanda, bityo agakora ibishoboka byose ngo amwangishe abaturage, mu rwego rwo kwitegura amatora ateganyijwe muri 2023 muri icyo gihugu.

Byongeye, ngo aba Mai Mai benshi barwana nta n’umurongo uhamye bafite ahubwo ari ukwica gusa, bica Abanyamulenge babaziza uko basa, babasaba ngo basubire iwabo, iyo ngengabitekereo ikaba inyuzwa cyane mu mbuga nkoranyambaga z’Abanye-Congo no mu bitangazamakuru bimwe mpuzamahanga.

Bamwe ntibarumva ibirimo kuba

Dr Shyaka yavuze ko kugeza ubu hari abatarumva ibirimo kuba baba abanyamahanga cyangwa abanye-Congo, ku buryo hari ababyita isubiranamo ry’amoko, kandi ari ubwicanyi bumaze imyaka myinshi bwibasiye Abanyamulenge.

Ati “Bimwe mu bigaragaza ko ubu bwicanyi bwabaye ndengakamere, mbere Abanyamulenge bahanganaga na buri bwoko bwabaga bubateye, ahanini bapfa inzuri n’ubutaka, baba Ababembe cyangwa Abapfurero, buri bwoko ukwabwo, ariko kuri iyi nshuro bishyize hamwe bose, bahuza umugambi”.

“Ba Mai Mai bishyizeho mu mazina y’abo bose, barihuza bahinduka umutwe umwe ukorera kuri teritwari nini cyane, uhuje abo bose bahanganye n’Abanyamulenge bonyine. Icya kabiri bakoze kitari gisanzwe, ni uko mu nkwano zabo kera, ibyo bakwaga byari bigizwe n’amafaranga, ufite inka akayikwa, ufite ihene akayikwa, ngira ngo wenda hariho n’abakwaga imbwa mu mico yabo, ubu noneho mu gukwa, mu Bapfurero cyane cyane, imbunda yiyongereyo mu nkwano z’umukobwa.”

Ibi ngo bigaragaza aho kwitegura kurimbura Abanyamulenge byageze, ari nabyo bituma hicwa benshi cyane. Ibibera i mulenge ubu ntaho bihuriye n’isubiranamo ry’amoko, ni ubwicanyi bwateguwe neza, bukorwa hagamije kurimbura Abanyamulenge cyangwa kubaca ku butaka bw Congo.

Hatangiye kuboneka icyizere

Hari icyizere ko nyuma yo kujya ku butegetsi mu 2018, Perezida Tshisekedi yahagurukiye ikibazo cy’umutekano mu burasirazuba bwa RDC, ku buryo n’imbaraga zirimo kugaragara mu gukemura iki kibazo zigaragaye cyane ku butegetsi bwe, ugereranyije no mu gihe cya Joseph Kabila.

Mu cyumweru kimwe gishize, abayobozi benshi barimo Minisitiri w’Ingabo, Aimé Ngoy Mukena; Minisitiri Ushinzwe kwegereza abaturage ubuyobozi n’ivugururwa ry’inzego, Azarias Ruberwa; Umugaba Mukuru w’Ingabo za FARDC, Général Célestin Mbala; Guverineri w’Intara ya Kivu y’Epfo, Théo Ngwabidje n’abadepite batandukanye bagize komisiyo y’ingabo, bagiriye uruzinduko i Minembwe.

Ni igikorwa Dr Shyaka avuga ko gitanga icyizere ko nubwo iyi myaka ine ishize yari iy’intambara n’ubwicanyi, ahari igihe kigeze ko leta yahagurukiye gukemura iki kibazo.

Ati “Nicyo cyizere bitanga, ngira ngo umuntu yaba ategereje akareba niba imbaraga zigaragara muri ibi byumweru bingahe zitanga umusaruro mu buryo bufatika, abagabaga ibitero ntibongere kubigaba, abishe abaturage babaziza uko basa wenda bakaba bafatwa bagashyikirizwa ubutabera, abahamagarira abaturage kwica abandi bagakurikiranwa, n’ibindi bikorwa nk’ibi byagarura icyizere.”

Muri urwo ruzinduko abayobozi ba komini ya Minembwe bayiyoboraga by’agateganyo bashyikirijwe inshingano ku mugaragaro mu ijwi rya minisitiri w’intara ya Kivu y’Amajyepfo ufite ubutegetsi bw’igihugu mu nshingano ze.

Iki gikorwa nacyo cyahumurije ndetse kinashimisha cyane abaturage ba Minembwe, babona ko guverinoma izirikana ibibazo byo kwangwa no kuvangurwa Abanyamulenge bamazemo imyaka myinshi, nubwo hari abanyapolitiki b’abahezanguni bagerageza kubikoresha bahamagarira abaturage kwanga iyi komini, byitwa ko ari iy’abanyamulenge ndetse bamwe badatinya kwita ko kuyemera ari “uguha ubutaka bwa DRC abanyamahanga”.

Mbere yaho, muri Gashyantare 2020, hari Abanyamulenge benshi bakoreye inama i Kinshasa barebera hamwe icyakorwa ngo umutekano n’amahoro bigaruke, Perezida Tshisekedi arabakira, abizeza inkunga ye mu bikenewe byose kugira ngo amahoro agaruke muri ako karere.

Dr Shyaka avuga ko kuba Leta yohereza abayobozi bakuru inshuro nyinshi mu Minembwe, bitanga icyizere ku gushaka umuti biri mu nzira nziza.

Gusa akibaza niba ubwo bushake bujyana n’ubushobozi. Ati “Iyo urebye uko Congo imeze, ukareba n’ibindi bice byinshi birimo ikibazo cy’umutekano muke kandi bimaze igihe kirekire nabyo nka Bunia, Beni, Tanganyika n’ahandi, hari ubwo watekereza ko ibikorwa ubu ari ubushake ariko ahari bitazakurikirwa n’amahoro arambye.”

Yongeraho ko kugira ngo amahoro agaruke, ari “ngombwa ko abaturage babigiramo uruhare, bakivanamo umwuka wo kubaho babikesha imbaraga zabo, kurwana no guhangana kugeza ku wa nyuma nk’uko bakunze kubivuga”.

Ikindi ngo hatekerezwa ku biganiro by’amahoro byahuza abantu baturutse mu moko yose, ariko n’abasirikare bakumva ko kurinda abaturage ari inshingano zabo; ko kubarinda atari igikorwa cy’impuhwe. Izo gahunda zose ngo zinunganirwa n’ibikorwa byateza imbere imibereho y’abaturage.

Dr Shyaka yakomeje avuga ko kujya mu mitwe yitwaje intwaro byabaye akazi kuri bamwe, ku buryo hari n’ababwirwa kujyamo bizezwa amafaranga, ari nacyo gituma Congo igira imitwe yitwaje intwaro irenga 400. Mu gihugu kirimo imitwe yitwaje intwaro ingana itya, kirimo ubukene bukabije, amahoro n’umutekano ngo ntibyagarurwa n’ibikorwa bya gisirikare gusa.

Ati “Hari abica mu izina ry’umunyapolitii runaka, bashaka amafranga yo kubeshaho imiryango yabo. Hari abajya mu mitwe yitwaje intwaro nk’uburyo bwonyine bubaha ibitatunga. Ingamba zose zitazakemura ikibazo cy’ubukene ntizazatanga amahoro arambye; iteka ubukene ni umwanzi w’amahoro.”

Ubu bukene ngo ni nabwo butuma n’abasirikare bamwe bijandika mu bwicanyi cyangwa mu bikorwa by’ubusahuzi, kubera ko badahembwa mu gihe bamwe baba bambaye amapeti aremereye.

Kugeza ubu bivugwa ko Abanyamulenge bafite umutwe w’abasivile wo kwirinda bise Twirwaneho, ariko ngo nabyo bitinze, byazazana ibindi bibazo.

Dr Shyaka yagize ati “Ntibyari bikwiye ko buri bwoko bwirwanaho mu gihugu gifite inzego z’umutekano, ni amaburakindi mu rwego rwo kwanga gutega amajosi. Leta yari ikwiye gusubirana vuba na bwangu inshingano zayo zo kurindira abaturage bose umutekano no kubaha uburenganzira bungana. Hakenewe abashinzwe umutekano b’abanyamwuga, ibyo gutuma buri bwoko bwirindira umutekano bitinze hazavamo abakoresha nabi izo mbunda mu rwego rwo gushaka inyungu zabo bwite.”

Abanyamulenge bahunze ibikorwa by'imitwe yitwaje intwaro irimo Mai Mai na RED Tabara

Uruhare rw’abaturanyi

Dr Shyaka avuga ko ibihugu bituranye na RDC bifite uruhare bishobora kugira mu kugarura amahoro mu Burasirazuba bwa Congo, kuko abaturage b’akarere bafite ibyo bahuriraho byinshi, kandi ihungabana ry’umutekano mu gihugu kimwe rigira ingaruka no ku bandi.

Ati “Iyo mitwe myinshi yagiye yogogoza Congo, myinshi yabaga igizwe n’abarwanyi ba FDLR n’ubu baracyarimo, muri Congo hari imitwe y’abarwanyi ba RED Tabara na FNLy’Abarundi yagiye yijandika muri ubwo bwicanyi bwakorewe Abanyamulenge ifatanyije na Mai Mai. Hari indi yavuye muri Uganda bivugwa ko imaze guhitana abantu benshi cyane muri Kivu y’Amajyaruguru na Bunia, iyo mitwe yose birumvikana ko iyo iri hakurya y’imbibi z’ibihugu byayo, kenshi na kenshi iba iri mu bikorwa bigamije guhungabanya amahoro n’umutekano mu bihugu ikomokamo.”

“Ibyo rero byanze bikunze bigira ingaruka, nta gihugu cyakwishimira kurebera ikindi kiri kubaka abanzi bacyo ndetse bikagera n’aho bamwe bahungabanya umutekano nk’uko tubobona ubu muri Nyungwe.”

“Ibihugu byo mu karere bikwiye gufatanya bigakorera hamwe, bitanabikoze ku bwo kurengera ubuzima bw’abantu bari kwicwa ubu, bikabikora ku nyungu zabyo bwite, kuko umutekano muke mu gihugu kimwe, byanze bikunze ubangamira umutekano wo mu bindi bihugu.”

Avuga ko ibibera muri RDC bitareba icyo gihugu gusa, kuko kubikemura biri mu nyungu n’umutekano w’akarere.

Dr Shyaka avuga ko ibihugu by'abaturanyi byagira uruhare mu gushakira amahoro RDC

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