Shira amatsiko ku ikoreshwa ry’ingufu za Nucléaire mu Rwanda: Minisitiri Gatete yabivuye imuzi (Video)

Yanditswe na Philbert Girinema
Kuya 29 Ukwakira 2020 saa 02:21
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Hashize imyaka ibiri abanyarwanda bumva mu matwi yabo umushinga mushya utera benshi impungenge, gusa wuje byinshi bihambaye mu nyungu. Ni umushinga ujyanye n’ikoreshwa ry’ingufu za Nucléaire mu bikorwa bitandukanye ku buryo ibyazwa amashanyarazi, mu buvuzi nko mu gushiririza kanseri, mu buhinzi aho yifashishwa mu guhunika imyaka ku buryo imara igihe kinini itangiritse n’ibindi.

Nubwo aribwo byavuzwe cyane, hashize imyaka myinshi mu gihugu hari ibikoresho bikoresha ingufu za Nucléaire. Urugero ni nk’imashini zisaka, ibyuma byinshi bikoreshwa kwa muganga n’ibindi.

Gusa byafashe indi ntera ubwo muri gahunda y’igihugu hashyirwagamo iyo kubaka uruganda rutunganya izi ngufu, ku buryo zishobora gutanga amashanyarazi. Nko muri iyi ngeri, kwifashisha Nucléaire byashyira iherezo ku ibura ry’amashanyarazi cyangwa se ubuke bwayo.

Urugero rworoshye umuntu yatanga, ni uko garama imwe ya Uranium [ubu butare nibwo butunganywa bugatanga ingufu za Nucléaire] ishobora gutanga MW 1 ku munsi, ni ukuvuga ngo ni ingufu zingana n’izatangwa na toni eshatu z’amakara. Ubaye utunganyije ikilo kimwe cya Uranium, wabona umuriro ungana na MW 1000, ni umuriro mu Rwanda tutaranagira mu bitekerezo.

Impamvu iroroshye kuko ubu dufite MW 226, kandi ku munsi izikenerwa ntizirenga MW 150 kandi nabwo ni muri cya gihe usanga abantu bose bacanye nko mu masaha y’umugoroba.

Hashyizweho Urwego rushinzwe izi ngufu

Inama y’Abaminisitiri yateranye ku wa 27 Ukwakira 2020 yemeje Iteka rya Perezida rishyiraho Urwego rw’Igihugu rushinzwe Ingufu za “Atomique”. Ni ikigo kizakurikirana ikoreshwa ry’ingufu za Nucléaire kizaba kirimo abahanga babisobanukiwe neza ku buryo aribo bazakurikirana ikoreshwa ryazo, bagasobanurira n’abanyarwanda ibyiza by’izi ngufu impungenge kuri zo zigashira.

Minisitiri w’Ibikorwa Remezo, Amb. Claver Gatete yagize ati “Mwakabaye mubibona nk’intambwe nini cyane, nibwo bwa mbere bishyizweho ariko icyo nakubwira ni uko n’abantu bacu barahuguwe, kugira ngo dutangire twubake, kibe ikigo twese kiduha amahirwe [...] ni ikintu gikomeye ku gihugu cyacu, kandi nk’uko mubizi ntabwo tujya dukora ibintu tutabisesenguye, ntabwo ari ibintu twahubukiye.”

Minisitiri Amb. Gatete yakomeje avuga ko kugira ngo igihugu gitere imbere muri iki gihe, bisaba ko gikoresha ingufu za Nucléaire dore ko zisanzwe zinakoreshwa mu Rwanda mu bikorwa bimwe na bimwe birimo ibyo kwa muganga n’ibyo mu nzego z’umutekano.

Ati “Ubu aho mwanyuze hariya, iriya mashini mwanyuzemo babasaka, irimo Nucléaire. Aho ujya kwivuza muri kiriya cyuma kivura kanseri, ni Nucléaire.”

Ikoreshwa ry’izi ngufu rizafasha u Rwanda muri gahunda yarwo yo kwifashisha siyansi n’ikoranabuhanga mu byo rukora, ku buryo hatifashishijwe Nucléaire, iryo terambere ritapfa kugerwaho mu buryo bworoshye.

Ati “Ni byiza rero kugira ngo tumenye ibirimo n’uko yadufasha mu gutera imbere.”

Amb Gatete yavuze ko muri urwo rugendo, hashyizweho amategeko ajyanye no kugenzura imikoreshereze y’izi ngufu ndetse u Rwanda rwemeza n’andi ajyanye n’umutekano w’uko ingufu za Nucléaire zikoreshwa n’agaragaza uko byagenda mu gihe habaho impanuka n’uko ibihugu bitabarana.

Kuki u Rwanda rwayobotse ingufu za nucléaire

Amb Gatete yakomeje yavuze ko uko ubu ingufu za Nucléaire zikoreshwa ku Isi, biri ku rwego rw’aho zidashobora gutera ikibazo na kimwe, bityo u Rwanda rwahereye kuri iyo ntambwe ruhitamo kuziyoboka.

Ati “Izo ngufu za Nucléaire zidufasha mu bintu byinshi kuko ubu mu mashanyarazi dufite, mu gihe kiri imbere, uko abantu bagenda batera imbere, ni ko bakenera amashanyarazi menshi, ariko amenshi twayakuraga mu mazi, amazi yacu bimaze gusa n’aho arangira.”

“Kuko uretse Ntaruka, uretse Mukungwa, na Nyabarongo I tugiye kujya kuri Nyabarongo II, nirangira ayo tuba dusigaranye ni ya yandi duhuriyeho na Congo, muzi ko dufite Rusizi I, n’iya II ubu tugiye kujya kuri Rusizi ya III izazana MW zirenga 200 noneho tukagera no kuri Rusizi IV. Niturangiza aho nta yandi mashanyarazi tuzaba dufite ava mu mazi.”

Yakomeje avuga ko muri Gas Methane naho u Rwanda rudashobora kuzakuramo amashanyarazi arenga MW 300 kandi ubu hamaze gutunganywa MW 26 mu mushinga wa Kivu Watt, aho byitezwe ko hari izindi MW 56 zizongerwaho n’undi wa Shema Plant.

Ati “Nitugera aho, amashanyarazi yandi ajyanye na Gas Methane ntabwo azaba agihari. Ni imirasire y’izuba n’ibindi. Ariko uko inganda zigenda zitera imbere kuko ubu ku bukungu zari ziri hagati ya 16% na 17% za GDP, ubu dushaka kugira ngo zitere imbere, zizakenera amashanyarazi menshi cyane. Ugiye kureba mu gihe kiri imbere tuzakenera andi mashanyarazi arenze ayo dufite kuko inkomoko yayo iri kuba nke cyane. Ni yo mpamvu tuzakenera ingufu za Nucléaire ku bijyanye n’amashanyarazi.”

Usibye amashanyarazi, Gatete yavuze ko Nucléaire izafasha mu kwita ku musaruro w’ubuhinzi kuko ariyo ikumira ibyonnyi ku buryo ibihingwa bizajya byoherezwa mu mahanga bikagerayo bitangiritse.

Ati “Ni ingufu za Nucléaire nta kundi wabigenza, ni ko abandi bose babigenza, ntiwavuga ngo sinzikoresha. Ubwo ntuzatunganya umusaruro, nta nubwo uzawohereza hanze. Mu buganga, ubuse ko dufite ibyuma byose bikoresha ingufu za Nucléaire, noneho twe twavuga ngo ntabwo twazikoresha?”

Kwifashisha izi ngufu bizafasha u Rwanda kandi mu cyerekezo rwihaye cyo kuba igihugu gikorerwamo ubukerarugendo bushingiye ku buvuzi. Izi ngufu zitezweho kuba umusingi muri iyo gahunda ku buryo abantu bajya bagana mu Rwanda bashaka kwivuza.

Ati “Kugira ngo baze hano, ni uko tugomba gukoresha biriya byuma byose kabuhariwe. Byose bikoresha imirasire ya Nucléaire. Ni kimwe no mu nganda, mu bumenyi bw’Isi, mu bucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro [...] ntaho utayisanga. Ibi bikorwa byose kugira ngo dushobore kubikoresha, twashyizeho ko aha tugomba kugira ikigo kibikurikirana, kikamenya icyo bivuze, tukagira ubuhanga.”

Minisitiri Gatete yavuze ko ubu hari abanyeshuri barenga 50 bari guhugurwa mu bijyanye n’ikoreshwa ry’ingufu za Nucléaire. Muri Nyakanga IGIHE yabonye amakuru y’uko hari abanyarwanda 70 boherejwe mu Burusiya kwiga, umwaka wa mbere w’amasomo yabo wari uwo kwihugura mu rurimi rw’Ikirusiya kuko arirwo amasomo atangwamo.

Minisitiri w'Ibikorwa Remezo, Amb Claver Gatete, yasobanuye ko u Rwanda rudashobora kwitesha amahirwe ari mu ikoreshwa ry'ingufu za Nucléaire

Mu Rwanda hagiye gukorwa ubushakashatsi mu gushaka Uranium

Iyo batunganya ingufu za Nucléaire, bifashisha intima cyangwa “atome” y’ubutare bwa uranium, bakayishyushya ikitandukanyamo utundi duce duto cyane, ibizwi nka “fission nucléaire”.

Iyo izo ntima nto zimaze gutandukana, zitanga ubushyuhe hanyuma nabwo bukifashishwa mu gushyushya amazi ari nayo avamo umwuka unyuzwa mu mashini zabugenewe zigatanga ingufu z’amashanyarazi cyangwa se izindi zifashishwa mu buvuzi nko mu gushiririza kanseri, cyangwa se indi mirasire ikoreshwa mu byuma bisaka.

Minisitiri Gatete yavuze ko Uranium ihari ahantu henshi ku Isi ku buryo mu gihe u Rwanda rwazayikenera, idashobora kubura. Yanahishuye ko hatangiye ibikorwa bigamije kureba niba no mu Rwanda ishobora kuhaboneka.

Ati “Irahari ahantu henshi cyane mu bihugu byinshi ndetse no mu Rwanda bari gushakisha kugira ngo turebe ko nayo yaboneka. Nta hantu itaba. Mu myiteguro turi gukora, ni ukugira ngo tubanze tubone abantu babizobereyemo, tubone ikigo kibidukurikiranira.”

Ni gute umutekano uzacungwa ku buryo nta kibazo izi ngufu zatera?

Mu 1986, muri Ukraine mu Mujyi wa Chernobyl habereye impanuka ikomeye yatewe n’iturika y’uruganda rwa Nucléaire, abantu barenga 50 bahise bapfa ariko ingaruka ntizagarukiye aho, kuko n’ubu ibibazo byatewe n’iturika ry’urwo ruganda zikiriho. Habarwa ko abantu ibihumbi bine bazapfa bitewe n’ingaruka zatewe n’iri turika.

IGIHE iherutse kuganira n’Umunyarwanda wari i Kiev muri Ukraine ku wa 26 Mata 1986 ubwo iyo mpanuka yabaga. Yari yaragiye kwiga muri icyo gihugu.

Ati “Ntabwo twari twemerewe kwinjira mu nzu winjiranye ikote n’inkweto, niba uvuye hanze, byasabaga ko ibyo wambaye ubisiga kugira ngo utinjirana ubumara mu nzu. Byabaye ngombwa ko imodoka zijya zisuka amazi ahantu hose mu muhanda, bagasukura inzu inshuro nyinshi, ahantu hose mu nzu, gusukura ikintu cyose [...] byari biteye ubwoba.”

Minisitiri Gatate yavuze ko gukoresha ingufu za Nucléaire, umuntu umwe adashobora kubikora mu buryo bwe wenyine, kuko hari amabwiriza n’amategeko yasinywe n’ibihugu aba agomba kubahirizwa.

Ati “Ni yo mpamvu uretse iriya mpanuka ya Chernobyl yabereye muri Ukraine mu 1986, nta yindi yari yaba. Nta n’imwe yari yongera kuba, kubera ayo mabwiriza. Imaze kuba nibwo bongeyeho n’andi ajyanye cyane cyane n’ubutabazi bwihuse n’ukuntu ibihugu bifatanya.”

“Twe twanagiye gusura inganda nyinshi cyane, iyo ugezeyo usanga ari nko mu biro. Hari nk’uruganda twagiye gusura mu Burusiya, ariko ntiwamenya ko ari n’uruganda ni nk’uko winjira mu biro. Ubu basigaye bafite uburyo bugezweho bwo kubikora ku buryo ingaruka mbi zabaye nke.”

Minisitiri Gatete yavuze ko yasuye uruganda rwo mu Burusiya rwa Novovoronezh rutanga ingufu z’amashanyarazi zingana na MW 1200. Rufite ubushobozi n’ikoranabuhanga rihambaye ku buryo nta mbogamizi zirimo nko gutunganya imyanda ituruka mu ruganda.

Ati “Bamaze igihe kinini bakoresha ingufu za Nucléaire, nta mpanuka yigeze ibaho itewe n’imyanda yaturutse mu ruganda. Kandi imwe mu ngeri turi kwitaho cyane, ni ugusobanukirwa uko imyanda iturutse kuri Nucléaire yitabwaho. “

Ikoreshwa ry’ingufu za Nucléaire rizafasha u Rwanda mu cyerekezo cyarwo cyo kugabanya imyuka ihumanya ikirere ndetse no gukoresha ingufu zitangiza ikirere.

Ugereranyije n’izindi ngufu, ntabwo iza Nucléaire zangiza ikirere nk’uko bigenda kuri Nyiramugengeri, kuko zitohereza mu kirere imyuka ihumanya ya CO2.

Gigawatt imwe y’ingufu za Nucléaire irinda ko igihugu cyakohereza mu kirere umwuka uhumanya wa CO2 ungana na toni miliyoni icyenda, bingana n’uwakoherezwa mu kirere n’imodoka miliyoni ebyiri, bityo kuyikoresha bizatuma u Rwanda rugera ku ntego rwihaye yo kugabanya imyuka yangiza ikirere.

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe n’Umuryango ushinzwe Ikoreshwa rya Nucléaire ku Isi, World Nuclear Association, bwagaragaje ko ikoreshwa ry’izi ngufu rigabanya toni 29 z’umwuka uhumanya wa CO2 kuri Gigawatt mu isaha (GWh).

Gatete yavuze ko ibyiza by’izi ngufu ari byinshi, ikibazo ari uko abantu bamwe bazirwanya mu gihe ku rundi ruhande bakinazikoresha.

Ati “Nitwe se tudashaka amashanyarazi ahendutse? Atangiza? Ntabwo bihariwe abantu bamwe gusa, natwe turabikeneye nk’abandi. Ahubwo icyo dushaka, ni ukugira ngo tugire n’ubumenyi bwo kubikoresha.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Umuntu arakubwira ati wowe ntubikoreshe kandi we abikoresha. Ni yo mpamvu ibihugu byose n’abaturanyi ba Uganda, Afurika y’Epfo, Afurika y’Iburengerazuba, Zambia, buri gihugu, bose bagiye mu ngufu za Nucléaire.”

“Ntabwo wavuga ngo mwe ntimubikoreshe, twe turabikoresha, oya, twese turashaka kubyungukiramo. Iyo tugeze ku masoko mpuzamahanga, twese dupigana kimwe, ntabwo bavuga ngo hari aba batayikoresha [Nucléaire], hari aba bayikoresha. Ntabwo bavuga ngo niba ndwaye ngomba kujya mu gihugu runaka gusa, kuki se bataza hano? Naho ubundi wasigara inyuma rwose.”

U Rwanda rwagiranye imikoranire n’u Burusiya nk’igihugu gifite ubunararibonye mu ikoreshwa ry’izi ngufu. Yavuze ko izafasha mu kuvoma ubunararibonye, bikajyana no gushyiraho ikigo kibishinzwe ku buryo kizajya kigenzura ko ibintu byose bikorwa mu buryo bunoze.

Ati “Bizadufasha, bizafasha igihugu cyacu. Utabikoze mu gihugu cyacu, wakomeza usigara inyuma.”

Gukoresha izi ngufu bizasaba amafaranga angahe?

Kimwe mu bintu bihenda cyane, ni ukubaka uruganda rukoresha izi ngufu. Amb Gatete yavuze ko ayo bizatwara ataramenyekana kuko hakiri gukorwa inyingo, ari nayo izatanga icyerekezo cy’igihe uyu mushinga uzaba wakorewe mu Rwanda.

Yavuze ko kugira ngo amashanyarazi yongerwe, bizasaba amafaranga menshi, gusa ko icy’ingenzi atari ukwita ku ngano y’amafaranga ahagendera ahubwo harebwa ku nyungu umuntu ashobora gukuramo.

Ati “Ahubwo ugereranya ikiguzi n’inyungu uri buvanemo. Ku nshuro ya mbere bishobora kuguhenda, ariko mu gihe kirekire, ntihagire andi mafaranga utanga ariko ikiguzi cya mbere kikaba cyinshi. Kubera ko urashyiraho uruganda runini, kuko nurushyiraho biraguhenda ariko icyo gihe ntabwo ari ikintu wongera ngo ushyireho ejo, bigutwara igihe kirekire nta kindi wongeyemo kuko amafaranga yo kurwitaho ni udufaranga duke. Ariko ikiguzi cy’ibanze nicyo kiba kinini cyane.”

“Nk’uko dusanzwe dukora indi mishinga ihenze, ni kimwe no kubaka ikibuga cy’indege, ni kimwe no kubaka inganda z’amazi, iz’amashanyarazi n’ibindi bikorwa remezo byose, iyi mihanda. Nabyo birahenze [...] ntabwo bihendutse ariko tugomba gukora ishoramari kugira ngo natwe tubone za nyungu.”

Inkuru zindi wasoma:

- Ivumburamatsiko ku mushinga w’Uruganda rw’Ingufu za Nucléaire mu Rwanda

- Umushinga wo gukoresha ingufu za nucléaire ugeze kure: Menya ibijyanye n’ikigo gishinzwe uko zizakoreshwa

Iyi ni yo nzira ikoreshwa kugira ngo izi ngufu zitange amashanyarazi, uhereye ku ruhande rw'iburyo aho amazi ashyushywa ukageza aho ahuzwa n'ingufu za nucléaire agatanga amashanyarazi

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