Kuki indege nyinshi ziba zisize ibara ry’umweru?

Yanditswe na Cyril Ndegeya
Kuya 2 Ukwakira 2020 saa 12:25
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Utekereje neza wasanga mu ndege zose zimaze kuguca mu jisho inyinshi ari izifite ibara ry’umweru cyangwa se ariyo ryiganje ku gice kinini cyayo! Ese wigeze utekereza impamvu?

Tujya tubona indege zisizwe andi mabara atari iry’umweru, tuzi nka Mango yo muri Afurika y’Epfo ifite ibara rya Orange, tuzi iyitwa Southwest yo muri Amerika isize ubururu bwinshi n’andi y’umuhondo n’umutuku, yewe indege za Air New Zealand zo rwose hari ubwo zisigwa ibara ry’umukara hose!

Sinshatse kuvuga ko andi mabara adakoreshwa ku ndege ariko hari impamvu sosiyete nyinshi z’ubwikorezi bwo mu kirere nyinshi zihitamo ibara ry’umweru, ubwo ni ukuvuga ko hari icyo rirushije andi mabara.

Ngiye kubabwira rero impamvu nk’eshanu z’ingenzi negeranyije zituma hakunze gukoreshwa ibara ryera ku ndege.

-  Ubushyuhe

Mwese musanzwe muzi ko ibara ryera ribasha gusubizayo imirasire y’izuba, bityo aho riri ntihashyuhe cyane mu gihe cy’izuba. Urugero ni ku myenda twambara, mu gihe cy’izuba kenshi usanga abantu bagerageza kwiyambarira utwenda twera tworoshye, bitandukanye n’abambara imikara kuko iryo bara ryo riha ikaze iyo mirasire rikanayibika bigatuma iyo myenda ibika ubushyuhe kubera iryo bara.

No ku ndege rero ni kimwe, hakurikijwe ko ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko ibara ryera rishobora gusubizayo imirasire y’izuba inshuro 12 kurusha ibara ryijimye.

Kugira ngo mubyumve neza, urebye nk’ubutumburuke indege igenderaho akenshi ku bilometero birenga gato 10 uvuye ku butaka, hashobora gukonja kugera kuri -57 degre Celcius, yamanuka ku butaka ikaba ishobora gusanga hashyushye kugera no kuri +45 degre Celcius. Urumva ko ikinyuranyo kirimo kigera kuri degre nibura hafi 90 wakongeraho kaburimbo zihagararaho muri apron [aho ziparika] ishobora kongeraho izindi degre 20 z’ubushyuhe ugasanga ikinyuranyo kirenze 100 degre celicius!

Ubwo bushyuhe bwose rero bubaye ari ku ndege y’ibara ryijimye murumva ko bushobora gutuma umubiri wayo usaza vuba ugereranyije n’uko byamera ku irangi ryera.

Ikindi cy’ingenzi ni uko mu bice bigize indege harimo ibiba bikeneye kurindwa ubushyuhe bwinshi, cyane cyane ibice bituma abapilote babasha kuyijyana mu byerecyezo bitandukanye bita Control surfaces (kuyizamura, kuyimanura, kuyikatisha n’ibindi). Ibyo bice byose hamwe n’agace ko ku izuru kabika radar ipima imihindagurikire y’ikirere byose biba bigomba kuba bisize ibara ryera kuko bikeneye kurindwa ubushyuhe bukabije igihe cyose.

-  Igiciro

Mu bisanzwe iyo indege irimo guteranywa hakoreshwa amabati afite ubwoko bwihariye bw’irangi ry’icyatsi buyarinda umugese, ikabona kwimurwa ijya aho izatererwa irangi risanzwe hakunze kwitwa muri paint shop.

Dufashe urugero nk’indege iruta izindi zitwara abagenzi ya Airbus A380 isaba abakozi 34 basimburanwa mu byiciro bitatu ku munsi bagakora iminsi itari munsi ya 15 kugira ngo bayoze, bayitegure banayitere hafi toni yose y’irangi. Ibi kandi bikazahora bisubirwamo nyuma y’imyaka irindwi cyangwa umunani bitewe n’uko indege yakoze n’uburyo yozwa.

Bitewe rero n’ibyo nyir’indege yifuza gutaka ku ndege ye harimo na Logo y’ikigo cye, birumvikana ko nyuma hashobora kwiyongeraho andi marangi, ibyo bikavuga ko n’igiciro kigomba kuzamuka kuko hashobora kwiyongeraho ibiro byakabakaba 450 by’iryo rangi rishya.

Bivuze ko ibyo ari ibindi biro byiyongereye ku bisanzwe by’indege, ibyo nabyo bikaba bisobanuye ko irushijeho kuremera bikazatuma nayo izanywa amavuta menshi, aho rero kandi nyirayo agomba no gutekereza ko aramutse ashatse nko kuyigurisha byamugora kubona umukiriya kuko nta wifuza kugura indege ifite impamvu zituma inywa cyane ndetse bizamusaba kongeraho n’irindi rangi ry’amabara ya sosiyete nshya hejuru y’irisanzwe ririho.

Urumva ko icyamuhendukira ari ukugura indege y’ibara ryera gusa kubera ko gutera irangi ku ndege bishobora gufata hagati y’ibihumbi 50 na 200 by’amadorali bitewe n’uko ingana!

Gusa cyakora sinabura no kubabwira ko kuri iki gihe habaho n’imiti ishobora gukuraho amarangi aba yarasizweho mbere bakabona kongera kuyoza neza bagateraho irindi rishya mu rwego rwo kwirinda ko indege yaremera cyane.

-  Umutekano

Indege ifite ibara ryera igaragaza byihuse ikibazo kiyiriho, ni ukuvuga ko niba hari ahantu hangiritse amahirwe yo kuhabona ku irangi ry’umweru ni menshi kuruta kuhabonera mu yandi marangi.

Ikibazo cyaba kiyiriho mvuga ni nko kuba hari ikintu cyayikubiseho cyangwa yagonganye nacyo, mujya mwumva nk’iyo zagonganye n’inyoni (ibyo bita bird strike) ndetse n’indege ikaba yahombana, hari ubwo bimwe mu bice byazo bishobora nko gufatwa mu mababa cyangwa n’ahandi hatandukanye.

Iyo indege igeze ku butaka kubona ibyo bibazo bihita bigaragara kuko akenshi haba hasigayeho amababa n’amaraso yazo ibara ryera rero rikabigaragaza vuba cyane.

-  Kugaragara vuba

Byagaragaye yuko igihe indege igize impanuka ikaba yagwa mu mazi cyangwa mu ishyamba, abatabazi babasha kuyibona vuba iyo ifite ibara ryera kurusha igihe ifite andi mabara.

Birumvikana cyane nko mu ishyamba kuko ubusanzwe kubonamo ikintu cy’umweru ari ibiba bidasanzwe bigatuma utaharenga utamenye icyaricyo, keretse nk’igihe impanuka yabera nk’ahantu hari urubura rwinshi, icyo gihe irindi bara ryijimye nibwo ryagaragara neza kurushaho.

-  Inyoni

Ku batari babizi buriya inyoni ni umwanzi w’indege cyane iyo bihuriye mu kirere, nubwo hari n’ibindi bishobora kuyangiriza mu kirere nk’urubura rukomeye ruhanuka hasi.

Ubushakashatsi rero bwerekanye ko inyoni zibonera kure ikintu gifite ubuso bwera kurusha ayandi mabara, bigatuma rero iyo ziyibonye mu kirere zishobora no kuyihunga. Mu gukoresha ibara ryera bigabanya amahirwe y’uko indege yaba rukuruzi cyane ku nyoni kandi bishobora kubangamira cyane umutekano wayo cyane ko buriya indege ishobora kugongana n’inyoni ebyiri gusa zikaba zayihanura hasi bigatwara ubuzima bw’abantu benshi.

Ngibyo rero muri make ibyo mwamenya ku mpamvu mubona indege nyinshi zikunze kugira irangi ry’umweru.

Haramutse hari ibindi mufiteho amatsiko ku bijyanye n’imikorere y’indege cyangwa ibibuga by’indege mwajya mutwandikira kuri [email protected].

Indege nyinshi usanga zisize ibara ryera ku mpamvu zitandukanye zirimo n'izijyanye n'umutekano wazo
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