Kwimikirwa i Paris ukayoborera muri Afurika: Ukuboko k’u Bufaransa muri Afurika nyuma y’ubwigenge

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 2 Ukwakira 2020 saa 09:23
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Françafrique ni ijambo ryahimbwe bwa mbere na François-Xavier Verschave, impirimbanyi ikomoka mu Bufaransa ari nawe washinze umuryango Survie ugamije kurwanya ruswa n’inzara mu bihugu biri mu nzira y’Amajyambere.

Françafrique ni ijambo ryahimbwe bwa mbere na François-Xavier Verschave, impirimbanyi ikomoka mu Bufaransa ari nawe washinze umuryango Survie ugamije kurwanya ruswa n’inzara mu bihugu biri mu nzira y’Amajyambere.

Ni umwe mu barwanyije bikomeye ubukoloni bushya bwadukanywe n’igihugu cye muri Afurika nyuma y’ubwigenge, by’umwihariko mu bihugu cyahoze gikolonije. Ni amayeri yahimbwe na General Charles de Gaulle wayoboraga u Bufaransa ubwo byinshi mu bihugu bya Afurika byabonaga ubwigenge, abifashishijwemo na Jacques Foccart wari umujyanama we, anashinzwe Afurika by’umwihariko.

U Bufaransa bwatanze ubwigenge ku bihugu bwakoloniza muri Afurika mu buryo bwa nyirarureshwa kugira ngo bwiyerekane neza mu mahanga, ariko buguma muri ibyo bihugu mu buryo buziguye. De Gaulle yashyizeho uburyo ibyo bihugu bishya byari bibonye ubwigenge, biguma kubaha no gukorera u Bufaransa.

Ibyo byatangiranye no gushyiraho abaperezida babiyobora ariko bubaha u Bufaransa kandi bakabukorera, ushatse gutana agakurwaho cyangwa akicwa. Ibyo kandi byajyanye n’amasezerano y’u Bufaransa n’ibyo bihugu bishya byari bibonye ubwigenge, nko mu bijyanye n’igisirikare, ubukungu n’ibindi.

Bimwe mu bigo by’ingabo z’abafaransa muri Afurika byashinzwe kubw’ayo masezerano y’ibanga, harimo nk’icya Abidjan muri Côte d’Ivoire kibamo abasirikare 3000, icya Dakar muri Sénégal kibamo abasirikare 1100, icya N’Djamena muri Tchad kibamo abasirikare 1000 n’icya Libreville muri Gabon kijyamo abasirikare 800. Hari n’ikindi giherereye muri Djibouti kijyamo abasirikare 2800.

Ni ingabo inzobere muri politiki zigaragaza ko zigamije kugenzura ibyo bihugu zoherejwemo, kurinda abategetsi babyo bakora mu nyungu z’u Bufaransa, kubakuraho no guteza akavuyo igihe basuzuguye n’ibindi.

Mu bijyanye n’ubukungu kandi, ibyo bihugu byagiye bisinya amasezerano yemerera u Bufaransa kuba ari bwo bwonyine bugura umutungo kamere wabyo nk’amabuye y’agaciro, imbaho, ibihingwa nka cacao n’ibindi. Muri ayo masezerano harimo n’uburyo bwo guha amasoko amasosiyete yo mu Bufaransa, tutibagiwe no gukoresha ifaranga rya CFA rigenzurirwa mu Bufaransa kandi igihugu kirikoresha kigetegekwa kugira amafaranga y’amadovize runaka kigomba kubika i Paris.

Nka tariki 24 Mata 1961, Côte d’Ivoire, Benin na Nigeri byasinye amasezerano n’u Bufaransa byemera ko umutungo kamere nk’amabuye y’agaciro na peteroli by’ibyo bihugu bizajya bigurishwa mu Bufaransa, kugira ngo nabyo bihabwe uburinzi buturutse ku Bufaransa.

François-Xavier Verschave mu gitabo cye ‘Noir Silence’ cyasohotse mu 2000, avuga uburyo abayobozi b’ibyo bihugu byahoze bikolonijwe n’u Bufaransa muri Afurika, batoranywa mbere yo guhabwa ikizamini i Paris. Aba mbere babanzaga guhura na Jacques Foccart, bagabahwa amabwiriza, bwa nyuma bagahura na General de Gaulle bakumvikana bagafashwa bakaba abaperezida.

Umunyamategeko Robert Bourgi, wagiye kenshi akurikiranira hafi uruhare rw’u Bufaransa muri Afurika ndetse agakorana n’abayobozi ba Afurika mu buhuza na Paris, mu 2011 yabwiye ikinyamakuru Journal du dimanche ko yajyaga ajyana i Paris amavalisi yuzuyemo amafaranga ayakuye Abidjan, Libreville cyagwa Brazzaville, ayashyiriye Perezida Jacques Chirac.

Yagize ati “Niboneye n’amaso yanjye Chirac na Dominique de Villepin bambarira amafaranga imbere.”

Gutoneshwa kwa bamwe mu bayobozi bo muri Afurika bumvira u Bufaransa

Felix Houphouët-Boigny yabaye Perezida wa mbere wa Côte d’Ivoire, inshuti idasanzwe y’u Bufaransa yashimiwe cyane kuzamura igihugu mu gihe ibindi byari bigiseta ibirenge. Nyamara nta bundi bumanzi, ahubwo ni umwe uhagarikiwe n’ingwe uvoma aho abandi bananiwe.

Houphouët-Boigny yari ameze nk’umuyobozi w’abaperezida bakorera u Bufaransa muri Afurika, utannye akamutanga, ushaka ubutoni akajya kumusabira ubuhake.

Uhereye ibumoso hari Jacques Chirac , Perezida Felix Houphouet Boigny na Jacques Foccart wari ushinzwe Afurika

Mu myaka 33 yamaze ku butegetsi, Côte d’Ivoire yafatwaga nk’igihugu gitera imbere mu bukungu, kirangwamo amahoro n’umutekano kugeza mu 2002 ubwo hadukaga imvururu.

U Bufaransa bwafashije mu buryo bukomeye Boigny kwikiza abatavuga rumwe na we, haba mu kubica cyangwa kubatoteza kandi ntakurikiranwe.

No mu bindi bihugu baturanye, Boigny yabaga afite ukuboko mu byahaberaga. Ibyo bigaragarira mu mvururu zo muri Biafra (1967-1970), Libéria (1989-2003) na Sierra Leone (1991-2002).Yagize uruhare mu rupfu rwa Thomas Sankara, byose bigizwemo uruhare n’u Bufaransa.

Muri ko gukingirwa ikibaba n’u Bufaransa, bivugwa ko Houphouët-Boigny yari afite umutungo wa miliyari 60 z’amafaranga yakoreshwaga mu Bufaransa. Ni umutungo mwinshi cyane kuko uruta kure umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu cye wabarirwaga muri miliyari umunani z’amadolari mu 1994.

Burkina Faso: Iyicwa rya Thomas Sankara agasimbuzwa Blaise Compaoré

Kimwe mu kimenyetso simusiga cy’ukwivanga k’u Bufaransa muri Afurika, ni iyicwa rya Perezida Thomas Sankara tariki 15 Ukwakira 1987. Guverinoma ya Sankara yari yarashyizeho gahunda zigamije guca ruswa mu gihugu, guteza imbere umugore, ubuhinzi, uburezi n’ibindi.

Mu mbwirwaruhame ze nyinshi, Sankara yamaganaga ukwivanga k’u Bufaransa mu miyoborere ya Afurika. Kubw’imikorere ye ihabanye n’umurongo u Bufaransa bwari bwarihaye muri Afurika, yabaye umwanzi wabwo nimero ya mbere. Byatumye kuwa 15 Ukuboza bakoresheje inshuti ye magara bamuhitana, asimbuzwa Blaise Compaoré. Ni umugambi wari urangajwe imbere na Félix Houphouët-Boigny na Jacques Foccart .

Abahungu b’u Bufaransa muri Afurika…

Tariki 13 Mutarama 1963, Sylvanus Olympio wabaye Perezida wa mbere wa Togo yarishwe, yicwa na Étienne Gnassingbé Eyadéma na we waje kujya ku butegetsi, mu mugambi wacuzwe na Foccart. Mu byatumye Olympio yicwa harimo uburyo yari atangiye kuzana amatwara y’ubwigenge busesuye, aho igihugu yashakaga kucyirukanamo abafaransa, agashyiraho ifaranga ryigenga.

Olympio yahise asimburwa na Nicolas Grunitzky, maze Gnassingbé Eyadéma azamurwa mu gisirikare ndetse aba umugaba mukuru wacyo. Mu 1967, Eyadéma yafashijwe guhirika Grunitzky, maze ajya ku butegetsi abukurwaho n’urupfu mu 2005. Ni umwe mu bafatwaga nk’abana b’u Bufaransa muri Afurika.

Ku butegetsi bwa Eyadema, u Bufaransa bwigaruriye icyo gihugu mu buryo bwose bushoboka. Eyadema nawe yabonye uburyo bwo kwigizaho umutungo mu buryo butemewe, kugeza ubwo yapfuye abarirwa agera kuri miliyari 4.5 z’amadolari, ni ukuvuga amafaranga akubye inshuro eshatu umwenda Togo yari ifitiye amahanga mu 2007.

Eyadema (iburyo) yabaye umutoni ukomeye mu Bufaransa mu myaka yamaze ku butegetsi. Icyo gihugu kandi ni kimwe mu bifasha umuhungu Faure uri ku butegetsi

U Bufaransa bwamubaye hafi cyane ndetse mu matora yose yagiye akorwa ubwo yari ku butegetsi, u Bufaransa buri mu bihugu bya mbere byoherezaga ubutumwa bw’ishimwe. Icyo gihugu kandi cyashimiye umuhungu we Faure Gnassingbé ubwo yatorwaga mu 2005, mu matora yahitanye abasaga igihumbi.

Mu bandi bafashijwe n’u Bufaransa kujya ku butegetsi, harimo Jean Bédel Bokassa wa Centrafrique wagiye ku butegetsi ahiritse ubwari buriho tariki ya 1 Mutarama 1966.

Bokassa wageze ubwo yiyita umwami w’abami, mu minsi ye ya mbere yari inshuti y’akadosohoka y’u Bufaransa, ariko icyo gihugu gihabwa rugari mu gucukura diyama, umuringa, na zahabu bya Cantrafrique. Umubano watangiye kuba mubi mu 1976 ubwo Bokassa yacudikaga na Muamar Gaddafi wa Libya.

Byarakaje u Bufaransa maze ahirikwa ku butegetsi tariki 21 Nzeri 1979 ubwo yari yagiye muri Libya, muri operasiyo yiswe Barracuda” yari yemejwe na Perezida Valéry Giscard d’Estaing.

Muri iyo operasiyo, u Bufaransa bwohereje ku kibuga cy’indege i Bangui abasirikare badasanzwe bo kukirinda no kubuza Bokassa kugaruka mu gihugu. Indege y’igisirikare cy’u Bufaransa niyo yazanye David Dacko mu gihugu ngo asimbure Bokassa.

Ukuboko k’u Bufaransa kandi kwarambutse kugera no muri Congo Brazzaville aho afashijwe na sosiyete y’abafaransa yitwa Elf, Denis Sassou Nguesso yafashe ubutegetsi mu 1979 kugeza mu 1992. Muri icyo gihe, iyo sosiyete yamufashije kugera ku butegetsi yahawe uburenganzira busesuye bwo gucukura peteroli muri icyo gihugu. Nguesso yatsinzwe na Pascal Lissouba mu 1992, maze Lissouba uburenganzira bwo gucukura peteroli abuharira sosiyete z’abanyamerika, Elf itakaza amasoko yari ifite. Byarakaje sosiyete z’abafaransa maze mu 1997 bateza akavuyo katumye Sassou Nguesso agaruka ku butegetsi.

Omar Bongo wa Gabon ni undi muperezida warwanye ku Bufaransa nabwo bumurwanaho mu myaka 43 yamaze ku butegetsi, guhera mu 1966 kugeza mu 2009. Nyuma yo kujya ku butegetsi afashijwe na Foccart, sosiyete zo mu Bufaransa zabonye rugari mu gucuruza umutungo kamere wa Gabon.

Inyandiko Dictatures et protestantisme en Afrique Noire ya Jérémie Kroubo Dagnini igaragaza ko mu gihe cya Bongo, sosiyete zo mu Bufaransa nka Elf zagabye amashami muri Gabon kugeza ubwo Bongo yajya atera inkunga n’amashyaka ndetse n’abanyapolitiki b’u Bufaransa mu bihe by’amatora.

Omar Bongo yafashijwe n'u Bufaransa kujya ku butegetsi, abugezeho sosiyete zo muri icyo gihugu zihabwa rugari muri Gabon

Iyo sosiyete kandi ni nayo yafashije Paul Biya muri Cameroun kujya ku butegetsi mu 1982, nyuma yo guhabwa umugisha na Perezidansi y’u Bufaransa. Kuva icyo gihe kugeza ubu Biya yagiye afashwa n’u Bufaransa mu matora yose yagiye aba ndetse bagaharanira ko imvururu zose zivutse bazihosha kubwe.

Mu kubitura, sosiyete nyinshi zo mu Bufaransa zahawe rugari mri icyo gihugu zirimo Elf yamufashije kujya ku butegetsi, Rougier na Bolloré.

U Bufaransa kandi bivugwa ko aribwo bwashyizeho bunakomeza gushyigikira Perezida wa Tchad Idriss Déby wagiye ku butegetsi guhera mu 1990. Icyo gihugu uretse kuba gifite ibirindiro by’ingabo zacyo muri Tchad, cyanagiye gifasha kenshi Deby mu gihe habaga hari abashaka guhirika ubutegetsi bwe. Mu 2008 ubwo ubutegetsi bwe bwari bugiye guhirikwa, uwari Minisitiri w’ingabo mu Bufaransa Hervé Morin yagiye i N’djamena kwizeza Deby ko u Bufaransa bumuri inyuma.

Politiki y’u Bufaransa muri Afurika kandi yagiye inakomereza ku bandi banyagitugu bagiye bayobora Afurika nka Philibert Tsiranana (1960- 1972) na Didier Ratsiraka (1975-1993, 1997-2002) muri Madagascar, ubutegetsi bwa Maréchal Sese Seko Mobutu wa Zaïre n’abandi.

Uhereye ibumoso hari Perezida Idriss Deby wa Tchad, Ali Bongo wa Gabon na Denis Sassou Nguesso wa Congo Brazzaville
Mu minsi ya mbere ya Bokassa (ibumoso) yakirwaga nk'umwami i Paris ariko yaje gutakarizwa icyizere ubwo yacudikaga na Libya
Uhereye ibimoso hari Blaise Compaore, Omar Bongo, Jacques Chirac, Paul Biya na Denis Sassou Nguesso

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