Imitego mitindi yatezwe u Rwanda rukayisimbuka kuva mu myaka irenga 10 ishize

Yanditswe na Philbert Girinema
Kuya 9 Ukwakira 2020 saa 07:10
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Hashize igihe kinini u Rwanda rutegwa imitego y’imishibuka igamije kurusiga icyasha burundu ariko bikarangira ruyivanyemo gitwari. Ni ibikorwa byakunze kuba byihishwe inyuma n’ibihugu byo mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi kimwe n’abandi bagamije indonke, maze bakandika za raporo cyangwa bagakora imbwirwaruhame ziruvugaho nabi mu gihe usibye kurubona ku ikarita bamwe baba batazi n’uko ikirere cyarwo gisa.

Akenshi iyi mitego yagiye itegwa binyuze muri za raporo zitandukanye, zikavugisha abantu, ariko zigamije guharabika u Rwanda n’abanyarwanda. Ni raporo zinenga ubuyobozi, zikabugaragaza nabi zirengagije ibipimo bigaragaza iterambere ry’igihugu.

Zimwe muri izo raporo harimo nk’izashingiweho n’ibihugu bitandukanye bigafata umwanzuro wo guhagarikira inkunga u Rwanda, ariko nyuma byaje kugaragara ko ari imyanzuro yafashwe hashingiwe ku bintu bitari ukuri.

Muri iyi nkuru turagaruka kuri zimwe muri izo raporo, ibyegeranyo n’imanza, ababiri inyuma n’amaherezo yabyo.

- Raporo yavuyemo guhagarikira u Rwanda inkunga

Mu 2012, impuguke za Loni ziyobowe na Steven Hege zashyizweho n’Inama y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ishinzwe Amahoro ku Isi, zikora raporo ku mikorere y’imitwe yitwaje intwaro ibarizwa mu Burasirazuba bwa RDC.

Iryo tsinda ryakoze isuzuma ku ku buryo iyo mitwe ibona intwaro n’ubundi bufasha. Icyo gihe mu karere havugwaga umutwe wa M23 maze izo mpuguke mu bushakashatsi bwazo zijya gushaka amakuru ku ruhande rwa Leta ya Congo kandi ifite uruhare mu ntambara n’andi menshi aturutse mu miryango mpuzamahanga itari iya Leta no mu bantu banga urunuka n’abarwanya Leta y’u Rwanda.

Byaje kurangira u Rwanda rwitiriwe kugira ububasha kuri M23, ndetse tariki ya 12 Nzeri 2012, Didier Reynders wari Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’Amahanga w’u Bubiligi, yabwiye Komisiyo y’Inteko ya EU ko nta gushidikanya ko u Rwanda rufite uruhare mu ntambara yaberaga muri RDC, anasaba Guverinoma y’u Rwanda kwamagana M23.

Icyavuye muri iyo raporo ni uko ibihugu byinshi birimo Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, u Bwongereza, u Buholandi, u Budage, Sweden, u Busuwisi, Umuryango w’Ubumwe bw’u Burayi; byafatiye u Rwanda umwanzuro wo kuruhagarikira inkunga na nyuma y’aho imiryango irimo Human Rights Watch irwanya yivuye inyuma ko rwongere kuzihabwa.

Icyo gihe Leta y’u Rwanda ibinyujije mu itangazo yagize iti “Ntitwivanga mu bibazo bya Congo Kinshasa by’imbere mu gihugu, yaba ibirebana na politiki cyangwa ibirebana n’igisirikare. Ibirego bivuga ibihabanye n’ibyo nta shingiro bifite.”

Nyuma y’amezi make inkunga zihagaritswe, u Rwanda rwahise rwishakamo ibisubizo, rutangiza Ikigega Agaciro Development Fund, aho ubu kimaze kugeramo miliyari 200 Frw avuye mu maboko y’abanyarwanda.

Hege wakoze iyo raporo muri RDC yari ahafite sosiyete ndetse yaje guhabwa amafranga angana na miliyoni eshanu z’amadorari n’abaterankunga, ikora ibikorwa byo gucukura no kugenzura amabuye y’agaciro ya Congo.

Ikindi ni uko mu byo yakoraga byose, harimo no gukorera FDLR ubuvugizi, ahakana Jenoside anasebya Leta y’u Rwanda. Muri raporo ye yerekanaga ko FDLR ari umutwe udateye ikibazo witungiwe n’ubuhinzi ndetse ko Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ari intambara isanzwe ya gisivile.

Steve Hege niwe wakoze raporo yashinjaga u Rwanda gutera inkunga M23, yaje kuvamo ko ibihugu bimwe na bimwe byaruhagarikiye inkunga

- Raporo zarwanyije Guca Nyakatsi n’Imidugudu zikanita abazima abapfu

Human Right Watch (HRW) ni umwe mu miryango itajya imbizi n’u Rwanda kuko buri gihe agakomye kose mu karere uhita ukora raporo zigaragaza ko u Rwanda ari nyirabayazana. Ikindi kandi mu bihe bitandukanye raporo zayo ntizahwemye kuvuga ko Leta y’u Rwanda ifata nabi abaturage batishoboye. Nko mu 2015 yavuze ko abazunguzayi, abakoresha ibiyobyabwenge n’inzererezi bakubitwa ndetse bakajya gufungirwa ahantu hatazwi.

Icyo gihe Minisitiri w’Ubutabera, Johnson Busingye, yarabyamaganye, avuga ko ari ibinyoma HRW isanzwe isohora bigamije kuyobya abanyarwanda no kubangisha gahunda nziza za leta zibateza imbere.

Yagize ati “Yarwanyije imidugudu, yarwanyije guhuza ubutaka, yamagana kurwanya Nyakatsi, yarwanyije gacaca; iyo Abanyarwanda tuza kwishinga Human Right Watch tuba tukiri mu bukene bukabije.”

Mu 2016 nabwo HRW yashinje u Rwanda gushora abana mu mitwe yitwara gisirikare itavuga rumwe n’u Burundi. Iyi raporo yanenzwe ko nta makuru arambuye itanga kuri iyo mitwe ndetse n’ibikorwa abo bana n’abakuze bashowemo.

Ntibyagarukiye aho kuko mu 2017 kandi HRW yasohoye raporo zirimo iyavugaga ko mu Rwanda abantu bakorerwa iyicarubozo abandi bakicwa n’indi yavugaga ko abaturage banyagwa amasambu yabo mu bice by’Uburengerazuba bw’igihugu.

Nko muri raporo yiswe “ All Thieves must Be Killed” bishatse kuvuga ngo ‘Abajura bose bagomba kwicwa’ yo ku wa 5 Nyakanga 2017, HRW yavugaga ko nibura inzego z’umutekano mu Rwanda zishe abantu 37 bakekwagaho ibyaha byoroheje mu Ntara y’Iburengerazuba, hagati ya Nyakanga 2016 na Werurwe 2017.

Gusa Komisiyo y’Uburenganzira bwa muntu mu Rwanda yarayinyomoje, igaragaza ko yasanze mu bantu bayivugwamo hari abakiriho, abishwe n’impanuka cyangwa n’abantu ku giti cyabo kandi babikurikiranyweho.

Minisiteri y’Ubutabera mu 2014 yakoze isuzuma ku mikorera ya HRW, igaragaza ibikorwa n’uyu muryango nk’ubukangurambaga bwa Politiki buba bwateguwe hagamijwe kwangisha rubanda Leta y’u Rwanda. Ryanagaragaje raporo z’uyu muryango, zikunda kubogamira ku ruhande rw’inyeshyamba za FDLR, zahunze igihugu nyuma yo gukora Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994.

Human Right Watch iyoborwa na Kenneth Roth imaze igihe kinini ikora raporo nyinshi zivuga nabi u Rwanda. Abasesenguzi bagaragaza ko zidakwiye guhangayikisha umuntu n'umwe kuko bimaze kumenyerwa ko ariwo murongo w'uyu muryango

- Ibirego bya Jean-Louis Bruguière byihishwe inyuma na Perezida Chirac

Tariki ya 17 Ugushyingo 2006, nyuma y’imyaka 12 Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ibaye, Umucamanza Jean-Louis Bruguière yakoze impapuro zo gufata abayobozi bakuru icyenda b’ingabo z’u Rwanda.

Yabashinjaga kuba barateguye kandi bagashyira mu bikorwa umugambi wo kwica Perezida Habyarimana n’abapilote b’Abafaransa batwaraga indege ye.

Yakoze izo nyandiko ashingiye ku kirego yari yagejejweho n’umukobwa wa Jean Pierre Minaberry, umwe mu bapilote b’iyo ndege waguye muri iyo mpanuka. Cyari cyatanzwe tariki ya 31 Kanama 1997, naho Bruguière atangira iperereza rye muri Werurwe 1998.

Ajya kuritangira, byari mu mugambi wo gucecekesha abanenga uko u Bufaransa bwitwaye mu bibazo by’u Rwanda. Icyo gihe mu binyamakuru nka Le Monde na Le Figaro byo mu Bufaransa hari hamaze iminsi hasohoka inyandiko zigaragaza ibimenyetso bishya by’uruhare rw’iki gihugu muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Icyo gihe kandi itsinda ry’impuguke zo mu Bufaransa zirimo abarimu ba Kaminuza n’abashakashatsi bakomeye, bari banditse ibaruwa ifunguye, isaba ko habaho komisiyo yigenga yo gucukumbura no kugaragaza uruhare rw’u Bufaransa muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Dosiye ya Jean-Louis Bruguière yabaye gishigisha mu mubano w'u Rwanda n'u Bufaransa wari usanzwe warahuhutse

Depite Paul Quiles wari Perezida wa Komisiyo y’Ububanyi n’Amahanga mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko y’u Bufaransa yemeje ubwo busabe, iyo komisiyo ijyaho ariko ntiyari ifite ububasha bwose bwo gukora icukumbura risesuye nko kubaza inzego z’ubutasi, iza gisirikare, n’izindi nk’izo, nta ruhushya rutanzwe na Guverinoma.

Uruhurirane rw’ibyo byose nirwo rwatumye Bruguière atangira bwangu iperereza yari yaranze gutangira kuva yagezwaho ikirego, kugira ngo ahagarike abo bose basabaga ko habaho iperereza risesuye k’u Bufaransa.

Yakoze iperereza riri mu rwego rwa politiki kandi ntiyagira ihame na rimwe yubahiriza rigenga imigendekere y’iperereza ku manza nshinjabyaha, cyane izirebana n’ihanuka ry’indege.

Ibyo byerekana ko yishe amategeko abigambiriye, ku mpamvu za politiki kuko nyuma byaje no kugaragazwa n’inyandiko z’ibanga zasohowe na WikiLeaks ku kiganiro Bruguière yagiranye n’uwari Ambasaderi wa Amerika mu Bufaransa, Craig Stapleton.

Iyo nyandiko y’ibanga yanditswe na Ambasaderi Stapleton ayigeneye abayobozi be igaragaza imirongo migari y’ikiganiro yari yagiranye na Bruguière. Yavuze ko Bruguière yasohoye impapuro zifata abayobozi b’u Rwanda abyemeranyijweho na Perezida Jacques Chirac kandi ko umugambi wabo wari uwo kubuza amahoro Perezida Kagame.

Ibi bishimangira impamvu atigeze ashyiraho impapuro zisaba itabwa muri yombi ry’Interahamwe zagize uruhare muri Jenoside, ahubwo akihutira kurega abayihagaritse.

Uwabaye Ambasaderi wa Amerika mu Bufaransa, Craig Stapleton, yigeze gutangaza ko ibyakozwe na Bruguière byari bishyigikiwe na Perezida Chirac


- Ibikorwa by’umucamanza wo muri Espagne washakaga kuba ikirangirire

Umucamanza wo muri Espagne, Fernando Andreu Merelles, nawe yakoze ibikorwa bijya gusa neza n’ibya Bruguière gusa aho umwe yakoreshejwe leta, undi yakoreshejwe n’abayoboke ba Kiliziya Gatolika.

Amashyirahamye y’abayoboke ba Kiliziya Gatolika bo mu Ntara ya Catalogne bahakana Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bavuga ko bafite bene wabo baguye muri RDC, bitabaje ay’abanyarwanda bahunze igihugu mu 1994, bamwe muri bo bashinze amashyaka ya politiki arwanya u Rwanda arimo FDU Inkingi, maze bashyikiriza ikirego Merelles.

Ku wa 26 Gashyantare 2006, Merelles ashingiye ku kirego cyatanzwe ku itariki ya 25 Gashyantare 2005, yatangije iperereza ku basirikare b’u Rwanda 69 ku byaha byakorewe muri RDC no mu Rwanda hagati ya 1990 na 2002.

Hashize imyaka ibiri, tariki ya 26 Gashyantare 2008 yasohoye inyandiko mpuzamahanga zifata bamwe mu basirikare bakuru b’u Rwanda, Merelles yemeje ko abasirikare bakuru 40, barimo 11 bari mu rwego rwa Jenerali, bagomba gukurikiranwa n’ubucamanza bwa Espagne. Yabashinje icyaha cya jenoside, ibyaha byibasiye inyokomuntu n’iterabwoba.

Igitangaje Merelles yanongeyeho ko na Perezida w’u Rwanda yakagombye gufatwa ariko ko kubera imirimo ye, amasezerano mpuzamahanga atabyemera, bituma adasaba ko yafatwa.

Ni umugabo waranzwe no guhakana Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi aho yavuze ko n’abishwe n’Interahamwe byatewe no kwirwanaho, anabeshya ko ibitero by’abacengezi byo mu 1997-1998 bitigeze bibaho ko ahubwo ari amayeri yahimbwe n’Ingabo z’u Rwanda kugira ngo zibone uko zica abahutu.

Kimwe mu bitarakunze kuvugwa ni uburyo uyu mugabo yari agamije kumenyekana ubwo yandikaga ibi byose. Impamvu ni uko iryo shyirahamwe ryatanze ikirego, ryari ryashingiye ku kindi kirego cyari cyaratangiwe muri Espagne gikurikiranwa n’umucamanza witwa Balthazar Garzon wari washoboye gufatisha Gen Augusto Pinochet wari mu rugendo mu Bwongereza waregwaga ibyaha yakoreye muri Chile akiri perezida w’icyo gihugu.

Byatumye Garzon amenyekana cyane nk’umucamanza w’igihangange kandi w’umuhanga, Merelles nawe aza kubyuririraho ashaka kuba ikirangirire.

Tariki ya 7 Ukwakira 2015, Urukiko rw’Ikirenga muri Espagne rwatesheje agaciro impapuro zo guta muri yombi abasirikare bakuru 40 b’u Rwanda, umugambi wa Merelles upfuba utyo.

Umucamanza wo muri Espagne, Fernando Andreu Merelles, niwe watanze impapuro zigamije itabwa muri yombi ry'abasirikare bakuru b'u Rwanda 40. Nyuma byaje kuvugwa ko ajya kuzishyiraho yari agamije kumenyekana

- Mapping Report, raporo yahesheje ikuzo FDLR

Inyandiko ndende yiswe ’Mapping Report’, yakozwe na Komisiyo y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye yita ku Burenganzira bwa muntu, ifite icyicaro i Genève mu Busuwisi, isohoka ku itariki ya 01 Ukwakira 2010, ikubiyemo ibyaha bigera kuri 617 byakusanyijwe hagati ya Nyakanga 2008 na Kamena 2009 ku butaka bwose bwa Congo.

Imaze kujya hanze u Rwanda rwagaragaje ko uretse kuba yari ikubiyemo amakosa menshi ku bibazo byateye intambara muri Congo n’imigendekere yazo, inakubiyemo ibinyoma bikomeye ku Rwanda, birimo kugoreka amateka, guhimba icyaha cya jenoside bise ko cyakorewe impunzi z’abahutu muri Congo n’ibindi.

Igaragaza uruhare rw’ingabo z’ibihugu bitandukanye zari muri Congo, ariko ikagira umwihariko wo kurega ingabo z’u Rwanda zari muri gahunda yo gucyura impunzi, ahubwo ikazitirira kuba zarakoze icyaha cya jenoside ku bahutu.

Ni raporo yirengagiza nkana ibyaha bikomeye bikorwa na FDLR birimo ibyibasiye inyokomuntu, ibyaha by’intambara, iby’iterabwoba, ubwicanyi, ubugome, ubusahuzi n’ibindi.

Ikindi ni uko mu gushaka ibimenyetso, abayanditse bakusanyije gusa ibituruka ku ruhande rushinja u Rwanda, cyane cyane iby’Imiryango Mpuzamahanga itari iya Leta, birimo inyandiko zisaga 80 zatanzwe na HRW n’izikomoka muri Sosiyete Sivile ya Congo, yari isanzwe yikoma u Rwanda.

Kuva yajya hanze, abayikoze bagerageje kuyikwiza hose, ariko ntacyo byigeze bitanga, kuko na Loni itigeze iyigaho. Bisobanuye ko nyuma y’imyaka 10 isohotse, nta ngaruka n’imwe ishobora gutera.

Umunyafurika y’Epfo, Navi Pillay, niwe wari ukuriye itsinda ryakoze Mapping Report

- Ni bande baba bari inyuma y’izi raporo?

Raporo nyinshi zivuga nabi u Rwanda si inkuru muri iki gihe kuko iyo hatasohotse ivuga ku byitwa ibibazo biri imbere mu gihugu, hasohoka indi ivuga wenda nko ku bibazo by’amabuye y’agaciro, u Rwanda rugashinjwa ko ruyasahura ruyakuye muri RDC n’ibindi nk’ibyo.

Inyinshi zikorwa n’abantu baba bafite inyungu zindi, bashaka kubona amafaranga muri ako kazi, bakabihemberwa n’imiryango mpuzamahanga iba ibafata nk’inzobere.

Abasesenguzi bagaragaza ko nk’ibijyanye n’iperereza ry’inyandiko z’umucamanza wo muri Espagne, hari abari baziri inyuma baherutse no guha igihembo Victoire Ingabire Umuhoza, ibintu byumvikanisha n’ubundi umurongo wo kutavuga rumwe n’ubuyobozi.

Umwe mu baganiriye na IGIHE yagize ati “Nka HRW usanga ifite ijambo cyane muri Amerika mu ba- démocrate [...] ibi byose ntabwo byizana, hari abantu babisunika kuko wasangaga buri gihe u Rwanda baruhoza ku nkeke kubera raporo zidahagarara. Nk’iz’itsinda ry’impuguke zo zisohoka buri mezi atandatu.”

“Ni ibintu byagiye biba, byari byaracogoye mu minsi ishize, ariko ubu hagarutse ibya Mapping Report, hari n’abuririye kuri ibi bya Rusesabagina bavuga ku burenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu, bakoresha za BBC, za RFI noneho hiyongereyeho za CNN. Ni ibintu bigikomeza.”

Ni ikiba kiba kigenderewe?

Abasesenguzi bagaragaza ko hari abantu bakinangiye, batarumva ko ubuyobozi bw’u Rwanda buhamye kandi bukora ibishoboka byose buharanira iterambere ry’igihugu n’abaturage, ibimaze kugerwaho bakabirenza amaso ahubwo bagashaka gukomeza kubucisha bugufi.

Umusesenguzi muri politiki mpuzamahanga waganiriye na IGIHE yagize ati “ Ni nk’aho hari abantu batarumva ko ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda buhamye, bumva iyi FPR Inkotanyi yabashije guhagarika Jenoside yonyine, abazungu babyanze, Abafaransa bo bashyikiye Guverinoma yariho, iyo FPR yirukanye ONG zari zuzuye iki gihugu nyuma ya Jenoside, u Rwanda rumaze kuba icyitegererezo muri Afurika n’ahandi, barahari batarabyumva cyane mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi.”

“Ntawe ukwiye guhangayikishwa na HRW”

Abasesenguzi bagaragaza ko raporo za Human Rights Watch ku Rwanda atari ikintu giteye inkeke, ndetse ko zizanahoraho kuko iyo zisohotse usibye kuvugwa umunsi umwe biba birangiye.

Umusesenguzi ati “Zihoraho kandi zinareba ibihugu byinshi, nta bihugu batanenga, ku buryo iyo yasohotse ikavuga nabi u Rwanda, ntabwo iba inkuru y’umunsi, kuko ni ibintu bisanzwe. N’izi raporo za leta ya Amerika, ni ibisanzwe.”

Bagaragaza ko uko raporo zaba nyinshi gute zinenga u Rwanda, zidateze kugira ikintu na kimwe gihindura ku Rwanda, kuko ruzi neza umurongo rwafashe kandi rugerageza kuwitwararikaho mu kubahiriza uburenganzira bwa muntu n’ibindi.

Ubuyobozi bwa Perezida Chirac bwakoze iyo bwabaga kugira ngo busibanganye uruhare urwo arirwo rwose u Bufaransa bwaba bwaragize muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi

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