Uko Gari ya moshi yagombaga kuvana u Rwanda mu bwigunge mu myaka 120 ishize yapfubye itaravuka

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 2 Werurwe 2021 saa 07:05
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Byashoboka ko iyo bigenda ukundi u Budage bugatsinda, u Rwanda mu bukungu, ibikorwa remezo n’ibindi ruba rumeze ukundi gutandukanye n’uko rumeze ubu, icyakora si ko byagenze kuko mu 1916 byayoyotse ubwo Umudage wa nyuma yakuraga ikirenge ku butaka bw’u Rwanda, akagenda shishi itabona mu masasu n’imyambi by’Ababiligi n’Abongereza.

Abadage batsindwa n’Ababiligi mu 1916, u Rwanda rugahabwa u Bubiligi, hari imishinga ikomeye yari yaratangiye gushyirwa mu bikorwa harimo n’umuhanda wa Gari ya Moshi wagombaga kuva Tabora muri Tanzania ukagera i Kigali mu Rwanda.

Igitabo Amateka y’u Rwanda kuva mu Ntangiriro Kugeza mu Mpera z’ikinyejana cya XX cya Komisiyo y’Igihugu y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge, (Ukuboza 2016), kivuga ko Abadage baje mu Rwanda bikandagira nyuma yo kubona ko ari igihugu gikomeye haba mu myubakire ya Politiki n’umuco wacyo.

Byatumye mu byo bakoraga byose, mu mibanire y’abategetsi b’Abadage n’ibwami bashyira imbere ukuzuzanya. Ubutegetsi bw’Abadage buvugwaho kuba bwarumvaga ubwami cyane ari nacyo cyatumye umubano wabo umera neza.

Tariki ya 15 Ugushyingo 1907, nibwo mu Rwanda hashinzwe Rezidansi ya mbere yihariye y’Abadage i Kigali, ihabwa Richard Kandt wari umuganga.

Ntabwo Abadage bashyize imbaraga mu mishinga myinshi y’amajyambere nk’amashuri kuko yo yari yarahariwe ahanini amadini by’umwihariko Kiliziya Gatolika.

Icyo bihutiye gukora mu Rwanda nkuko Igitabo Amateka y’u Rwanda kuva mu Ntangiriro Kugeza mu Mpera z’ikinyejana cya XX kibivuga, ni ugushinga ibigo bya gisirikare bigamije kurinda ibitero by’ibindi bihugu byakolonizaga mu karere nk’u Bubiligi muri Congo n’Abongereza muri Uganda.

Mbere ya 1907 mu Rwanda hari hari ibigo bibiri bya gisirikare, icyari Shangi muri Cyangugu na Gisenyi. Nyuma hubatswe ibindi nk’i Kigali (1907), Ruhengeri (1909), na Gatsibo (1914).

Icyo gihe u Budage bwafatanyaga u Rwanda n’u Burundi ndetse na Tanganyika.

Gari ya moshi ku Rusumo!

Abadage bamaze kugera mu Rwanda, barubonye nk’ahantu hari amahirwe akomeye mu buhinzi n’ubworozi, ndetse ko hafashwe neza haba ikigega u Budage bwajya buvanamo ibyo kurya, ibyo gukoresha mu nganda z’ibiribwa n’ibindi.

Inzobere mu mateka y’u Rwanda, Innocent Nizeyimana, yabwiye IGIHE ko umushinga wo kubaka gari ya moshi mu Rwanda wari ufitiye inyungu nyinshi cyane Abadage.

Ati “Abadage u Rwanda barufataga nk’igihugu kibereye ubuhinzi. Bumvaga bagiye kugihingamo ibihingwa bakajya babipakira ubwato bikabasanga iwabo mu Budage. Mu bintu baje bahita bohereza hanze harimo inyama z’inka n’impu. Byari ibicuruzwa bikomeye, urumva n’ibindi nk’ibireti n’ikawa na quinine zavagamo imiti y’ubuganga byose bari babikeneye bakabipakira bakabijyana hanze.”

Gari ya moshi niwo mushinga ukomeye w’amajyambere Abadage batekereje mu Rwanda. Ni Gari ya moshi yagombaga guhuza Tabora na Rusumo.

Imirimo yo kubaka iyo Gari ya moshi ku ruhande rwa Tanganyika yatangiye mu 1905, nyuma y’imyaka ibiri iya Uganda yubatswe. Umuhanda wa Gari ya moshi wageze Tabora mu 1912.

Igice cyari kiruhije kurusha ibindi gihuza Tabora n’Ikiyaga cya Tanganyika cyarangiye muri Gashyantare 1914, aribwo hatangiye kwigwa uko yakomeza ikagera mu Rwanda ndetse no mu Burundi.

Bivugwa ko uwo mushinga wari ushyigikiwe na Guverineri wari ushinzwe Afurika Ndage y’Iburasirazuba, Heinrich Schnee. Uwo Guverineri yari amaze iminsi asuye u Rwanda ari kumwe n’umuhanga wagombaga kwiga uko umushinga wa Gari ya moshi uzakorwa.

Umuhanda Tabora – Rusumo kandi wari waremewe n’ubutegetsi bw’u Budage i Berlin, ukaba wari kuba ufite ibirometero 450 uvuye Tabora kugera ku Rusumo aho umugezi wa Ruvubu uva mu Burundi n’uw’Akagera wo mu Rwanda bihurira.

Hatekerezwaga ko muri iyo migezi yombi hashyirwamo inzira z’ubwato bupakira abantu n’ibicuruzwa. Ni ukuvuga ko Gari ya moshi yari kugarukira ku Rusumo, ibicuruzwa bikajya bihagera cyangwa bihava bipakiwe mu bwato, bikagezwa mu Rwanda no mu Burundi hagati.

Abadage bifuzaga kubaka umuhanda wa Gari ya moshi Tabora-Rusumo ngo umusaruro w'ubuhinzi n'ubworozi mu Rwanda ugezwe ku nyanja (Ifoto:Coll. CFB)

Icyakora, icyo gitekerezo hari abataragishyigikiye barimo Padiri Van der Burgt wari umumisiyoneri i Burundi. We yavuze ko ahubwo umuhanda wa Gari ya moshi wakubakwa ugakomeza ukagera Bujumbura, ugakomeza kandi ukagezwa mu Rwanda no ku Kiyaga cya Kivu. Mu busesenguzi bwe, ngo byari gutuma hiyongeraho ibilometero bishya 200 uvuye Rusumo, ibintu yumvaga bidahenze ushingiye ku nyungu zari kuvamo.

Uwo mupadiri yavugaga ko umuhanda wa gari ya moshi nugera ku kiyaga cya Kivu, uzafasha Abadage kugeza ku nyanja byoroshye umusaruro w’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi ndetse n’ibindi bicuruzwa bivuye muri Congo Mbiligi.

Uwo mushinga wageze igihe cyo gushyirwa mu bikorwa intambara ya mbere y’isi yose itangiye gututumba kuko byageze mu wa 1915, ingabo z’Abadage zariho zirwana n’Abongereza n’Ababiligi bashakaga kwigarurira uduce tw’Abadage mu Burasirazuba bwa Afurika.

Mu gihe intambara yari itangiye, hari injeniyeri wari waroherejwe na Leta y’Abadage wari mu Gisaka n’ikipe ye imufasha, biga neza uko umushinga uzatangira. Bahamaze amezi ane biga aho inzira ya gari ya moshi yari kunyura.

Icyo gihe Inteko Ishinga Amategeko y’Abadage (Reichstag) mu ngengo y’imari y’u Budage y’umwaka wa 1914 yari yaratoye miliyoni 50 z’ama- deutsche mark yakoreshwaga mu Budage, hafi miliyoni 30 z’amadolari ya Amerika kuri ubu. Ayo mafaranga yari inguzanyo yo kubaka gari ya moshi Tabora-Rusumo.

Ingabo z’Abadage zimaze gutsindwa, u Rwanda n’u Burundi bikigarurirwa n’u Bubiligi naho Tanganyika igatwarwa n’Abongereza, wa mushinga wa Gari ya moshi wahise uburizwamo.

Umushakashatsi, umwanditsi, inzobere mu mateka na Politiki, Dr Jean Paul Kimonyo yabwiye IGIHE ko umuhanda wa Gari ya moshi Abadage bashakaga kubaka mu Rwanda, ubundi byari uguhangana n’Abongereza bari bamaze kubaka umuhanda wa gari ya moshi ugera ku kiyaga cya Victoria.

Bisa nk’aho u Bubiligi n’u Bwongereza byishishaga cyane u Budage n’imishinga yabo mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari, kuko Dr Kimonyo avuga ko ariyo mpamvu ibyo bihugu byashyize hamwe imbaraga mu ntambara ya Mbere y’isi yose, ngo u Budage butakaze igice bwari bwarafashe.

Ati “Ababiligi n’Abongereza bafatanyijhe kurwanya Abadage mu karere. Nyuma y’Intambara ya Mbere y’isi yose mu 1922, Abongereza bashumbushijwe kimwe cya kane cy’u Rwanda mu Burasirazuba, batwara igice cy’i Gisaka. Bari barasabye icyo gice ngo bubakemo umuhanda wa Gari ya Moshi wagombaga kuva i Cairo ukagera Cape Town.”

Nubwo i Gisaka cyari cyatanzwe nk’impano yo gutsinda Abadage, umwami Yuhi V Musinga wangaga Abongereza bikomeye, yaratsimbaraye kugeza mu 1923 ubwo i Gisaka cyagarurwaga ku Rwanda. Dr Kimonyo avuga ko agace k’u Bufumbira ariko kahise kabigenderamo, kakomekwa kuri Uganda.

Innocent Nizeyimana yavuze ko iyo umuhanda wa Gari ya moshi Tabora-Rusumo uza kubakwa, byari gushoboka ko ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bwari kuba butandukanye n’uko buri kuri ubu.

Yavuze ko impamvu Ababiligi batakomeje gushyira imbaraga mu kubaka uwo muhanda, ari uko nta nyungu bo bawubonagamo.

Ati “Nta nyungu bari bakibona kuri Tanzania kuko yari ihindutse koloni y’Abongereza. Iyo u Rwanda rukomeza gukolonizwa n’Abongereza bari gukomeza kubaka gari ya moshi ikagera Kigali ariko kuba byarahindutse bakaruha u Bubiligi bwakolonizaga na Congo, icyerecyezo cy’ubukungu bw’u Rwanda cyarahindutse dusigara twegamiye ku nyanja ya Atlantique aho inyungu z’u Bubiligi zari ziri aho kuba iy’u Buhinde nka mbere.”

Izo nzozi z’umuhanda uva muri Tanzania ugera mu Rwanda, zongeye kubyutswa mu 2018 ubwo ibihugu byombi byemeranyaga kubaka umuhanda uva Isaka ukagera Kigali ureshya na kilometero 532, uzubakwa na miliyari 3.6 z’amadolari.

Congo yatangiye gusaba ko mu gihe uwo muhanda waba ugeze mu Rwanda, wakomeza ukagezwa i Rubavu na Goma, ukifashishwa mu buhahirane hagati y’ibice byo mu Burasirazuba bwa Congo n’icyambu cya Dar es Salaam ku nyanja y’Abahinde.

Ibihugu byagezemo imihanda ya gari ya moshi muri Afurika, aho yakoreshejwe neza byateye imbere ku buryo bugaragara (Ifoto:Jeremy Wiseman)

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