Ubuzima bw’umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa umaze imyaka 61 atanze

Yanditswe na Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu
Kuya 26 Nyakanga 2020 saa 10:04
Yasuwe :
0 0

Imyaka 61 irihiritse umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa atanze (Ku wa 25 Nyakanga 1959- Ku wa 25 Nyakanga 2020). Umwami waranzwe n’ibigwi bihambaye cyane cyane mu ihirimbana rye ry’ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda no guhengamura igihugu ngo cyongere gisubirane ubuzima, umushinga wo kucyubaka wongere ujye mbere.

Ibikorwa bye byamuranze mu myaka 28 yamaze ku ngoma y’u Rwanda ( 1931-1959), nibyo byatumye Leta y’u Rwanda ifata icyemezo cyo kumushyira mu Ntwari z’igihugu. Aba umwe mu Ntwari z’Imena yungirije Imanzi mu kurinda igihango cy’umuco n’umurage w’u Rwanda.

Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa Charles Leon Pierre, yavukiye i Nyanza, mu Ngoma y’Igihugu cy’u Rwanda, muri Werurwe 1911. Ni umwana w’Umwami Yuhi IV Musinga wa Rwabugili na Kankazi ka Mbanzabigwi, akaba ari n’imfura ye mu bana 43 yabyaranye n’abagore 21, ni n’umwana w’ikinege wa Kankazi kuko nyuma ye nta wundi mwana yabyaye.

Ivuka rya Rudahigwa ryahuriranye n’inkuru mbi y’urupfu rwa Kabare ka Rwakagara wari warafashije se Musinga gufata ubutegetsi mu ntambara yabereye ku Rucunshu, kuko yapfuye muri Werurwe 1911. Ni we mwami wa mbere w’u Rwanda wimye ingoma kandi se akiriho, hari ku wa 16 ugushyingo 1931.

Umwami Mutara III Charles Léon Pierre Rudahigwa, yabaye umwami wa 27 w’Ingoma y’u Rwanda, yimye ingoma ku wa 16 Ugushyingo 1931, ubwo Ababiligi bari bamaze kuyambura se Musinga. Ni umwami witaye cyane ku iterambere ry’ igihugu cyane cyane ubuhinzi n’ubworozi. Yatanze ku wa 25 Nyakanga 1959, azize urushinge rwa Penesirine yatewe n’umuganga wamuvuraga wakoreraga I Bujumbura mu Burundi. Yatanze nta mwana asize, bituma ingoma y’ u Rwanda ayizungurwaho na murumuna we Ndahindurwa Jean Baptiste wafashe izina rya Kigeli V Ndahindurwa.

Urushako rwa Rudahigwa, n’uko yabaye umukiristu

Mbere y’uko Rudahigwa Charles Leon Pierre aba umukirisitu, yashatse umugore witwa Nyiramakomari mwene Kamugunga kwa Kimenyi Getura umwami w’I Gisaka wo mu Bagesera b’Abazirankende, bashakanye ku wa 15 Ukwakira 1933, bamarana imyaka 8. Nyuma yafashe icyemezo cyo kumwirukana , kuko bavugaga ko atabyara, nyamara amateka akaba agaragaza ko Nyiramakomari yakuyemo inda zigera kuri enye cyangwa se eshanu, ubwo yashakanaga na Rudahigwa. Icyakora amateka agaragaza ko hari umwana w’Umukobwa yabyaranye na Rudahigwa bise Gasibiregi Elizabeti waje gupfa afite imyaka ibiri ku wa 2 Kamena 1937 azize uburwayi butunguranye.

Nyuma Nyiramakomari yaje gushyingirwa na Nyirimbirima wa Nshozamihigo wa Rwabugili babyarana abana benshi. Mu wa 1942, Rudahigwa yashakanye na Gicanda, ari nawe waje gushyingiranwa nawe mu nzira ya gikirisitu, ari nabwo we n’umugore we n’umugabekazi baje kubatizwa mu wa 1943.

Ku wa 13 Mutarama 1942, nibwo Gicanda wa Martini Gatsinzi wa Semugaza mwene Kigeli Ndabarasa yashyingiranywe n’umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa basezerana imbere y’Imana ku wa 17 Ukwakira 1943, ubu bukwe bwabo bwari bunyuranyije n’amahame y’ubwiru bitewe n’uko Gicanda n’Umwami Rudahigwa bakomokaga mu muryango umwe w’Abanyiginya. Yakomeje kubana na Rudahigwa kugeza ubwo batandukanywaga n’urupfu mu mwaka wa 1959.

Ku wa 17 Ukwakira 1943, nibwo Rudahigwa yabatijwe, yabatijwe na Léon Classe Musenyeri w’umufaransa icyo gihe wari ahagarariye Kiliziya Gatorika mu Rwanda, Rudahigwa afata izina rya Charles Léon Pierre, abyarwa muri batisimu na Guverineri Mukuru wa Kongo Mbiligi na Rwanda-Urundi, Pierre Ryckmans, abatiranwa na nyina, Nyiramavugo Kankazi, wiswe Ladegonde, akaba yarabaye umwami w’u Rwanda wa mbere wabatijwe akayoboka amadini.

Impamvu Rudahigwa yabatijwe akitwa amazina angana kuriya, kwari ukugira ngo ashimishe Abakoroni, ngo arebe ko bamarana kabiri. Kwitwa Léon, kwari ukugira ngo yitiranwe na Musenyeri Léon Classe wamubatije kandi akagira n’uruhare mu kumuha ubutegetsi bari bamaze kwambura se Musinga. Impamvu yiswe kandi Pierre, ni ku bw’icyubahiro yashakaga kugaragariza umubyeyi we wa Batisimu Pierre Ryckmans, wari Guverineri Mukuru wa Congo na Rwanda-Urundi. Naho kwitwa Charles niwe wabyihitiyemo kubera gushaka kwitiranwa na Mutagatifu Karori mwiza wabaye Umwami w’Abafurama, wabaye umukirisitu cyane.

Mutara Rudahigwa yatuye u Rwanda Kririsitu umwami

Umuhango wo gutura igihugu cy’u Rwanda Kristu Umwami, wabaye mu kwezi k’Ukwakira mu 1946, wabaye iminsi itatu yikurikiranya, kuva ku ya 26, 27 kugera ku ya 28 z’uko kwezi, ubera i Nyanza mu rwunge rw’amashuri rwitiriwe Kiristu umwami (ahazwi ubu nko muri Christ roi). Bivugwa ko ibyo birori byo byizihijwe mu buryo bukomeye kandi bunogeye buri wese, bikaba byari byitabiriwe n’abanyacyubahiro batandukanye barimo ; Musenyeri Léon Classe, Pierre Ryekmans Guverineri Mukuru wa Congo na Rwanda-Urundi, Sandrart Rezida w’u Rwanda, Umwami Mutara Rudahigwa, umugabekazi Nyiramavugo Kankazi, Umwamikazi Gicanda Rozariya n’abandi banyacyubahiro.

Kugeza mu wa 1950, Umwami Mutara wa III Rudahingwa yakoze politike yo kumvikana na Kiliziya Gatorika na Leta Mbiligi, aharanira guteza imbere imibereho y’Abanyarwanda n’ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda.

Rudahigwa yaranzwe no kurwanya akarengane mu butabera abigaragariza mu Rukiko rw’Umwami no mu mirimo ya buri munsi aho yirirwaga arenganura abaturage bose.

Mu mwaka wa 1948, ubwo intumwa za ONU zasuraga u Rwanda, Ababiligi bari bizeye ko umwami azabarega kuri izo ntumwa uburyo bivanga mu miyoborere ye bamunaniza, ariko Rudahigwa nawe abyumva nk’ejo, arabizibukira, ahubwo avuga ko yishimiye imitegekere y’Ababiligi, ndetse abwira n’abatware kutabavuga nabi. Raporo izo ntumwa zajyanye yagiye ivuga neza Ababiligi.Byatumye Ababiligi bamuhemba kugenderera igihugu cyabo mu wa 1949. Bwabaye ubwa mbere Abanyarwanda basura ku mugaragaro u Burayi.

Ubwo Rudahigwa yari akubutse mu Bubiligi yaganiriye n’abakoroni b’Ababiligi abahata ibibazo bijyanye n’impamvu ki badateza imbere uburezi iwabo bumeze neza , kandi urwitwazo rwabo mu gukoronbiza Afurika harimo no guteza imbere uburezi bwaho. Nibwo mu mwaka wa 1950, Ababiligi batangiye kwikubita agashyi bamera nk’abakangutse, maze si ugushinga amashuri biva inyuma.

Umwami Mutara Rudahigwa, amaze kubona ikandamizwa ry’Abanyarwanda, no gusuzuma uburyo ubuhake bwahinduye isura , butari bifite kuva bwashyirwaho n’abami b’u Rwanda , yafashe icyemezo cyo kubukuraho, kugira ngo budakomweza kuba urwitwazo rw’Abakoroni n’abandi banyarwanda bari bamaze kuyoboka ingoma mbiligi, ngo bakomeze gukandamiza Abanyarwanda.

Umwami Rudahigwa yari umuntu ukunda abaturage be kandi wicisha bugufi

Kuwa 15 Mata 1954 yaciye iteka rikuraho ubuhake. Iteka rya Rudahigwa rica ubuhake, umushinga waryo yawutangije mu 1945, ariko ryemezwa burundu mu wa 1954. Yaciye ikiboko mu wa1949, nabyo biba intandaro yo kwangwa n’Abakoroni burundu.

Uruzinduko rwa nyuma i Burayi

Rudahigwa yagiriye uruzinduko mu Burayi ku wa 13 Kamena 1958 aherekejwe n’intore yari ajyanye mu Imurikabikorwa (Exposition Coloniale de l’Afrique Belge) ryabereye i Bruxelles. Iryo murikabikorwa na Gregoire Kayibanda yari yarigiyemo. Umwami Rudahigwa muri urwo ruzinduko yashoboye guhura n’abaganga bamumenyesha ko atazashobora kubyara. Icyo gihe yari afite imyaka 47, kandi yari amaze imyaka 25 arongoye.

Uko kutabyara kwakomeje guhangayikisha Abanyarwanda ku byerekeye uwazamusimbura aramutse atanze (apfuye). Rudahigwa kandi yavuye i Burayi afite umugambi wo gushyiraho ishyaka rya politiki yifuza ko ryahuza Abanyarwanda. Iryo shyaka yifuzaga kuryita "Imbaga y’inyabutatu ijya imbere" kandi rigategekwa n’Umuhutu witwaga Kosima Rebero wakomokaga Asitirida (Butare); uwo Kosima Rebero yari yarahoze ari Umufurere w’umuyozefiti.

Yavuye mu Burayi yarahindutse undi, yari yarafashe ingamba zikaze zo gushakira u Rwanda ubwigenge n’andi maboko kuko yabonaga gukomeza kugundagurana n’Ababiligi ntacyo bizamugezaho, yiyemeza ko agiye gushaka umubano uhamye na Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika. Urwo rugendo rwe rwagombaga kugera ku cyicaro cy’umuryango w’abibumbye i New York, muri Leta Zunze ubumwe z’Amerika (USA), kuvugana n’ubuyobozi bwa ONU, uburyo u Rwanda rwakwigobotora ubukoroni bw’Ababiligi batagize icyo babagezaho!

Ibyo byamuteranije n’Ababiligi, bagirana amakimbirane cyane; ku buryo icyemezo cyo kumwemerera kujya muri icyo gihugu cyagombaga gufatwa na Minisiteri ishinzwe koroni z’Ababiligi, cyafashwe hashize amezi atandatu.

Mutara Rudahigwa yahise afata icyemezo cyo kugenda atazuyaje, kugira ngo afatire ibintu mu maguru mashya. Ku wa 24 Nyakanga 1959, Rudahigwa yagiye i Bujumbura mu Burundi kureba Umudogiteri wamuvuraga witwa Jurien Van.

Yabonanye n’uwo muganga we mu gitondo cyo ku wa 25 Nyakanga 1959, yamuteye urushinge rwa Penesirine atangira kumererwa nabi, bitewe no kuvira imbere mu mutwe. Jurien Van yabonye bikomeye ahamagara abandi bo kumufasha ariko Rudahigwa arushaho kuremba.

Muri iryo hizana ryo gushaka uko Rudahigwa yakira, rivanzemo amayeri ya Poritiki, Jurien Van yahamagaye Padiri Vander Vene amusaba kumuha amasakaramentu ya nyuma kuko yabonaga ko birangiye, Rudahigwa yatanze bitunguranye ku ya 25 Nyakanga 1959 saa saba z’amanywa. Yaguye I Bujumbura afite imyaka 48.

Urupfu rwe rwamenyekanye mu Rwanda ku wa 26 Nyakanga mu itangazo ryavuzwe na Radiyo ya Bukavu saa tanu z’amanywa, ariko umuryango we wari wabimenye kare, Umugabekazi Kankazi Ladegonde, Umwamikazi Gicanda Rozariya n’abandi bo mu muryango ba hafi bafashe urugendo bajya i Bujumbura gusezera ku mugogo wa Rudahigwa mbere yuko bamushyingura.

Mbere yo kumushyingura habanje kuba Misa yo kumusezeraho yabereye muri Kiliziya ya Misiyoni ya Nyanza ku wa 28 Nyakanga 1959, iyo Misa ikaba yarasomywe n’uhagarariye Kiliziya Gatorika mu Rwanda Musenyeri André Perraudin. Misa ihumuje indi mihango yakomejwe na Musenyeri Aloys Bigirumwami wari umushumba wa Diyosezi ya Nyundo.

Mu bwiru bw’i Rwanda nta mwami watabazwaga uwo kumuzungura atabanje gutangazwa. Mbere y’uko umugogo wa Rudahigwa utabarizwa, Umutware w’Abiru Kayihura yafashe ijambo atangaza ko Ndahindurwa Jean Baptiste ariwe uzunguye mukuru we Rudahigwa ku ngoma, akaba ahawe izina rya Kigeli V, akazitwa Kigeli V Ndahindurwa, umwami wa 28 mu mateka y’ingoma y’u Rwanda. Ndahindurwa yari umusore uri mu kigero cy’imyaka 23 kuko yavutse mu wa 1936. Rubanda rubonye uwo musore mwiza w’igihagararo, umucyo watangiye kweyura umwijima w’agahinda kari mu maso y’abari aho bose, bishimira ko Rudahigwa abonye umuzungura kandi wimitswe hakurikijwe imihango y’ubwiru.

Rudahigwa yagerageje gushaka ubwigenge bw'u Rwanda ariko Ababiligi baramwitambika kugeza atanze (igishushanyo cyakozwe na Alain Kalima)

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

AMATEGEKO AGENGA IYANDIKA RY'IGITEKEREZO CYAWE
Kwamamaza

Special pages
. . . . . .